Peripheral nerve injuries are frequent and represent a significant pathology of the peripheral nervous system because, despite operative techniques and successful microsurgical repair, in most cases, the nerve repair is followed by scar formation. Numerous investigations have been carried out with the aim of finding pharmacological substances that can prevent scar formation and speed up the regeneration of repaired nerves. This chapter is dedicated to the efforts of many researchers to find different pharmacological agents with local effects on the improvement of nerve regeneration. Numerous experiments have been carried out in mice and rabbits using hyaluronic acid, tacrolimus, cyclosporin A, melatonin, vitamin B12, methylprednisolone, riluzole and potassium and calcium channel blockers. In the experimental animal studies, topical pharmacological agents were used at the site of peripheral nerve repair. The effect of these substances is most commonly studied in sciatic nerve injury in experimental animals. Their effects were evaluated using a variety of methods, such as morphological, biomechanical, electrophysiological and functional evaluation, and the above‐mentioned substances, have been shown to have neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties though different mechanisms.
Part of the book: Peripheral Nerve Regeneration