Fouling is a phenomenon that occurs in all membrane processes. It is a complex problem, which limits the full operation of this technology. Fouling in pressure-driven membranes (PDMs) has been studied extensively, and the occurrence is well understood in that methods of mitigation have been proposed; however, limitations still occur for their full implementation. The use of osmotically driven membranes (ODMs) for water treatment is an emerging technology, which has shown some advantages such as low hydraulic pressure operation, high solute rejection and high recovery over PDMs. However, like in PDMs, fouling still presents a challenge. This chapter is aimed at evaluating the impact of fouling on the ODM performance, exploring the factors and mechanisms governing the fouling behaviour, developing approaches for mitigating fouling, elucidating the effect of membrane fouling and providing mitigation strategies as well as the causes of fouling in ODMs.
Part of the book: Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes