Action observation therapy (AOT) is a developing neurorehabilitative tool, which is based on the existence of the mirror neuron system (MNS). This neural network involves motor regions, and its main feature is that it is activated not only during the execution of an action, but also during the observation of the same action. Bearing in mind this “dual” activation, the AOT proposes that motor symptoms of different neurological disorders can improve with the observation and imitation of different actions. While several studies have shown the benefits of this therapy, others have been less favorable indicating a lack of clarity in the field. The present study focuses on previously undiscussed aspects regarding this therapy: from the kind of actions used in the therapy to the scales that should be used to measure the results of AOT. Differences and similarities between virtual reality-based therapies and AOT are also discussed. The considerations made here about all such aspects may be useful for future studies and possible applications of AOT.
Part of the book: Neurological Physical Therapy
The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with different neurological and psychiatric disorders, which are integrated among the extra-intestinal manifestation of this disease. The physiopathology of neurological manifestations of IBD varies among the different kind of complications. The origin and the significance of these manifestations must be understood by clinicians who manage IBD patients. Some of them are related to therapeutic agents. The present chapter consists of a review of the most prevalent neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with IBD. The physiopathology of those entities will also be discussed, as well as the appropriate management for their prevention and treatment.
Part of the book: New Concepts in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Surgery is one of the most important steps in most of brain tumors management. In this regard, the extent of resection has been considered as an important prognostic factor. However, the resection may be limited by the presence of functional brain tissue around or in the tumor. Preventing functional damage during brain surgery is essential to keep a good postoperative performance status and for facing the successive steps in brain tumor management (i.e., radio- and/or chemotherapy). This chapter will describe all the procedures around an awake surgery for a brain tumor: from presurgical preparation to postoperative treatments and follow-up. It will not focus only on surgical approaches, but also on the specific aspect of the disciplines that are involved in this procedure.
Part of the book: Brain Tumors