Photoelastic modulator (PEM)-based ellipsometry employed either lock-in amplifiers or the Fourier analysis technique to obtain the ellipsometric parameters almost in real-time that makes the system with a feature of fast measurement speed, higher stability, and sensitivity at small retardations. Since the PEM modulation frequency is too high to compare it with the exposure time of the camera, photoelastic modulator–based approach is not applicable for a two-dimensional ellipsometric measurement. Here, we represent a novel technique that coordinates with the light pulses and PEM modulation that can freeze the time-varied signals. Thus, two-dimensional ellipsometric parameters can be obtained within few seconds. In addition to ellipsometric measurement, this approach also can be extended to other imaging polarimetry measurements, such as Stokes parameters and Mueller matrix. Moreover, since the chromatic dispersion of birefringence was also a significant issue in the polarization modulation systems, we proposed an equivalent phase retardation technique to deal with this issue. This technique was confirmed by a dual wavelength measurement result without changing the optical configuration of the system. The concept and the theory of this system were indicated in the preceding section, and the passage below described some calibration issues for the photoelastic modulator. Some measurement results were revealed in the final part of this chapter.
Part of the book: Ellipsometry