Cystic fibrosis–related diabetes (CFRD) results in significant morbidity and mortality for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is the endpoint of a spectrum of progressive insulin deficiency with resulting abnormalities of glucose tolerance. The consequence of glycaemic abnormalities in CF is poorer nutritional status, an increase in respiratory exacerbations with decline in lung function and ultimately greater morbidity and mortality. CFRD can be diagnosed by the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) usually performed from 10 years of age. However, this may miss early glycaemic abnormalities which appear to be clinically important. Early recognition of CFRD and treatment have been shown to improve outcomes in CF. Novel diagnostic methods such as 30-min sampled OGTT and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) may prove to be useful in screening for this disorder and in the early identification of glycaemic abnormalities.
Part of the book: Progress in Understanding Cystic Fibrosis
With advances in technology, it is now possible to detect the emergence of glucose abnormalities in cystic fibrosis with improved sensitivity, and from a very early age. These abnormalities are increasingly recognized as predictors of clinical decline, raising the possibility that early intervention may slow or prevent this deterioration. In this chapter, we will review the available literature on methods of detecting glucose abnormalities in cystic fibrosis (random and fasting glucose, HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance testing, and continuous glucose monitoring), and detail their advantages and possible limitations in the interpretation of glycemic data. We will also discuss treatment outcomes of early intervention, prior to the diagnosis of diabetes as currently defined.
Part of the book: Cystic Fibrosis