Stem cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a type of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), widely investigated for regenerative treatment. They are isolated from dental pulp tissues remaining in physiologically shedding human deciduous teeth. Thus, SHEDs are easy to access and not required invasive procedure to obtain cells. SHEDs are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells; however, they possess distinct properties when compared to other MSCs. In this regard, SHEDs exhibit higher proliferative rate than bone marrow‐derived MSCs and greater osteogenic differentiation potency than human dental pulp stem cells. This chapter reviews the isolation technique and basic characteristics of SHEDs. Moreover, the intracellular signalling involved in the stemness regulation and differentiation ability of SHEDs is discussed, particularly on fibroblast growth factor, Notch, and Wnt signalling. Finally, the potential regenerative therapeutic application of SHEDs is also described.
Part of the book: Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a clinical procedure promoting regeneration of periodontal tissues. In general, this technique provides spaces for periodontal cells to repopulate and regenerate in the periodontal defect by physically preventing an invasion of gingival tissues in the affected area. Although various reports certify clinical success of GTR, high variation of favourable outcome among studies leads to the investigation to improve clinical GTR efficiency for periodontal tissue regeneration. Recent development of GTR membrane aims to augment bioactivity for facilitating and enhancing tissue healing and regeneration. Various approaches are examined, for example, the release of growth factor, the incorporation of bioactive ceramics and the delivery of antimicrobial agents. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is widely used in biomedical application due to its acceptable biocompatibility and degradability. Physical characteristics are easy to manipulate. Various forms and shapes are simple to fabricate. PCL can be employed as GTR membrane and scaffold filling in the periodontal-defect area. Bioactive PCL could be fabricated by various techniques to enhance periodontal tissue regeneration. The present chapter reviews the bioactive approaches for GTR membrane, and the potential utilization of PCL for GTR application is described.
Part of the book: Periodontitis