Damage in genetic material is induced through the action of several drugs (directly or indirectly). Specially, antimicrobials from quinolone class (such as ciprofloxacin) induce DNA damage that promotes the formation of the RecA filament leading to auto-cleavage of LexA and allows the expression of SOS genes, including the error-prone polymerase (like umuC). The SOS pathway plays a critical role in the acquisition of mutations that lead to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the spread of virulence factors. This chapter provides a comprehensive review about the SOS response of Staphylococcus aureus and the modulatory effects of new compounds (natural or synthetics) on this pathway. The effects of some SOS inhibitors are highlighted such as baicalein and aminocoumarins. Compounds able to prevent SOS response are extremely important to develop new combinatory approaches to inhibit S. aureus mutagenesis. The study of new SOS inductors could reveal new insights into the pathways used by S. aureus to acquire drug resistance; examples of these compounds are the lysine-peptoid hybrid LP5, cyclic peptide inhibitors, etc. These studies can impact the development of new drugs. In conclusion, we hope to provide essential information about the effects of compounds on SOS response from S. aureus.
Part of the book: The Rise of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus