Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers encompass the pathological stages of Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ. To prevent recurrence, intravesical therapy, which is performed after complete transurethral resection, is the current standard therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers. In patients with low-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer, post-transurethral resection (TUR) management is a single immediate intravesical instillation of chemotherapy alone. For an intermediate-risk patient, a 6-week course of induction intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy can be adapted. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine is still the gold standard of immunomodulating intravesical treatment used to reduce recurrence and progression. Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The newly developed technology will be able to change intravesical therapy success in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Part of the book: Bladder Cancer