Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men, and the lifetime risk of getting bladder cancer is 2.4%. Approximately 75% of newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and half of them will show recurrence and/or progression after transurethral resection. Therefore, after transurethral resection, in high-risk patients, intravesical therapy is mandatory. However, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is associated with important side effects such as systemic tuberculosis and bladder retraction. Chemohyperthermia (CHT) has shown a 60% lower recurrence rate than standard mitomycin C (MMC). However, its effectiveness in high-risk patients, especially CIS and BCG refractory patients, is even more important. CHT will probably be an option for patients unsuitable for radical cystectomy or those on whom BCG can’t be used. Two main technologies are currently available for intravesical CHT: microwaves and recirculating heated fluids. Both of them have pros and cons that should be known and evaluated by a urologist. In this chapter, we will speak about rationale, technical options, clinical results, ongoing studies, and future perspective for this interesting treatment option for intermediate and high-risk patients with NMIBC.
Part of the book: Bladder Cancer