Many factors render multimodal affect recognition approaches appealing. First, humans employ a multimodal approach in emotion recognition. It is only fitting that machines, which attempt to reproduce elements of the human emotional intelligence, employ the same approach. Second, the combination of multiple-affective signals not only provides a richer collection of data but also helps alleviate the effects of uncertainty in the raw signals. Lastly, they potentially afford us the flexibility to classify emotions even when one or more source signals are not possible to retrieve. However, the multimodal approach presents challenges pertaining to the fusion of individual signals, dimensionality of the feature space, and incompatibility of collected signals in terms of time resolution and format. In this chapter, we explore the aforementioned challenges while presenting the latest scholarship on the topic. Hence, we first discuss the various modalities used in affect classification. Second, we explore the fusion of modalities. Third, we present publicly accessible multimodal datasets designed to expedite work on the topic by eliminating the laborious task of dataset collection. Fourth, we analyze representative works on the topic. Finally, we summarize the current challenges in the field and provide ideas for future research directions.
Part of the book: Emotion and Attention Recognition Based on Biological Signals and Images