Hydraulic fracturing is a commonly used practice in the oil industry for well stimulation and production enhancement. With the general theme of the oil and gas industry moving toward systems with nano-sized pores, nanoparticles have gained a significant amount of attention especially in the field of hydraulic fracturing. Several groups have developed different nanoparticle systems that improve hydraulic fracture conductivity. This paper is a review of the highlighted work published in the area of application of nanoparticles to improve fracture conductivity. Nanotechnology can be used to improve the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing process. Four major production challenges faced by the oil and gas industry including incomplete filter cake cleanup, proppant pack damage, formation damage, and having micro-fractures that are not packed with proppants and will close under closure stress are introduced in this work. Solutions have also been reported using the advances in nanotechnology to address some of these challenges.
Part of the book: Advances in Natural Gas Emerging Technologies
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected into oil reservoirs to maximize production for decades. On the other hand, emitted CO2 from industrial processes is captured and stored in geological formations to mitigate greenhouse gas effects. As such, greater attention is drawn to the potential of utilizing the captured CO2 in EOR processes. A significant portion of the injected CO2 remains trapped due to capillary forces and through dissolution in residual liquids. In organic-rich shales, the presence of isolated kerogen nanopores add to the sequestration process due to the adsorptive nature of the surface and its preference to CO2 over methane (CH4), in addition to the sealing capacities of these formations. This work summarizes the latest findings of the literature with the purpose of defining further areas of investigation to fully capitalize on the potential of CO2 sequestration and utilization in kerogen nanopores.
Part of the book: Carbon Capture, Utilization and Sequestration