This chapter summarizes recent research on the coronary collateral circulation. The chapter is focused on clinical perspectives and importance of a well-developed coronary collateral circulation, the mechanisms of growth induced by chemical factors and a role for stem cells in the process. Some discussion is devoted to the role of shear stress and mechanical signaling, but because this topic has been reviewed so extensively in the recent past, there is only small mention of its role in the growth of the coronary collateral circulation.
Part of the book: Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis
This chapter summarizes recent research on the biology of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The chapter is focused on the bimodal actions of ROS, which can be summarized as both beneficial and negative. The beneficial aspects of ROS are related to their effects on the redox state of cells and the important role that some ROS play in signaling cascade. The detrimental effects of ROS are related excess amounts of these chemical moieties, which are caused by excessive production and/or insufficient actions of endogenous antioxidants. The generation of these species is also discussed.
Part of the book: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in Living Cells