Plant‐parasitic nematodes are one of the limiting factors for soybean production worldwide. Overall, plant‐parasitic nematodes alone cause an estimated annual crop loss of $78 billion worldwide and an average crop yield loss of 10–15%. This imposes a challenge to sustainable production of food worldwide, since there has been increasing demand for food supply and food security. Unsustainable cropping production systems with monocultures, intensive use of soils and expansion of crops to newly opened areas have intensified problems associated with new pests and diseases. Thus, finding and applying sustainable methods to control diseases associated with soybean are in current need. Over hundred nematode species, comprising fifty genera, have been reported in association with soybean. Of these, the root‐knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, lesion nematode Pratylenchus brachyurus and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis are major nematode species limiting soybean production. Here, we report an up‐to‐date literature review on the biology, symptoms, damage and control methods used for these nematodes species. Additionally, unusual and emergent nematode species affecting soybean are discussed.
Part of the book: Soybean
Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the limiting factors for production of major crops worldwide. Overall, they cause an estimated annual crop loss of $78 billion worldwide and an average 10–15% crop yield losses. This imposes a challenge to sustainable production of food worldwide. Unsustainable cropping production with monocultures, intensive planting, and expansion of crops to newly opened areas has increased problems associated with nematodes. Thus, finding sustainable methods to control these pathogens is in current need. The correct diagnosis of nematode species is essential for choosing proper control methods and meaningful research. Morphology-based nematode taxonomy has been challenging due to intraspecific variation in characters. Alternatively, tools and methods based on biochemical and molecular markers have allowed successful diagnosis for a wide number of nematode species. Although these new methods have been useful due to their practical, fast, accuracy, and cost effective, the use of integrative diagnose, combining morphology, biochemical and molecular data is more appropriate when necessary to strength diagnose, define species boundaries, and to have a more suitable molecular database for nematode species. Here, we report a review on current methods and tools used to identify plant parasitic nematodes.
Part of the book: Nematology
Plant-parasitic nematodes are a significant factor limiting potato production and tuber quality in several regions where potato is produced. Overall, parasitic nematodes alone cause an estimated annual crop loss of $ 78 billion worldwide and an average crop yield loss of 10–15%. As a result, sustainable food production and food security are directly impacted by pests and diseases. Degrading land use with monocultures and unsustainable cropping practices have intensified problems associated with plant pathogens. Proper identification of nematode species and isolates is crucial to choose effective and sustainable management strategies for nematode infection. Several nematode species have been reported associated with potato. Among those, the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp., the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus spp., the potato rot nematode Ditylenchus destructor and the false root-knot nematode Nacobbus aberrans are major species limiting potato yield and leading to poor tuber quality. Here, we report a literature review on the biology, symptoms, damage and control methods used for these nematode species.
Part of the book: Potato