Wireless communication technology has kept evolving into higher frequency regime to take advantage of wider data bandwidth and higher speed performance. Successful RF circuit design requires accurate characterization of on-chip devices. This greatly relies on robust de-embedding technique to completely remove surrounding parasitics of pad and interconnects that connect device to measurement probes. Complex interaction of fixture parasitic at high frequency has imposed extreme challenges to de-embedding particularly for lossy complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device. A generalized network de-embedding technique that avoids any inaccurate lumped and transmission line assumptions on the pad and interconnects of the test structure is presented. The de-embedding strategy has been validated by producing negligible de-embedding error (<−50 dB) on the insertion loss of the zero-length THRU device. It demonstrates better accuracy than existing de-embedding techniques that are based on lumped pad assumption. For transistor characterization, the de-embedding reference plane could be further shifted to the metal fingers with additional Finger OPEN-SHORT structures. The resulted de-embedded RF parameters of CMOS transistor show good scalability across geometries and negligible frequency dependency of less than 3% for up to 100 GHz. The results reveal the importance of accounting for the parasitic effect of metal fingers for transistor characterization.
Part of the book: Microwave Systems and Applications
Green energy helps in reducing carbon emission from fossil fuel, harvesting energy from natural resources like wind to power consumer appliances. To date, many researches have been focusing on designing circuits that harvest energy from electromagnetic signals wirelessly. While it could be designed to be efficient, the generated power however is insufficient to drive large loads. Wind energy is highly available environmentally but development of small-scale energy harvesting apparatus aiming to extract significant power from miniature brushless fan has received limited attention. The aim of this chapter is to give audience an insight of different voltage multipliers used in energy harvester and knowledge on various circuit techniques to configure voltage multipliers for use in different high voltage applications. These include AC-DC converter, AC-AC converter and variable AC-DC converter.
Part of the book: Advanced Electronic Circuits