Propolis is a resinous material produced by bees from the selective collection of plant exudates that are subsequently mixed with beeswax and salivary bee secretions. Propolis has been used in folk medicine, and certainly, several studies have validated its biological properties. The chemical composition and pharmacological activities of propolis collected through North (including Central America and Caribbean) and South America have been studied in the last years, and several papers have reported differences and similarities among the analysed geographical samples. Propolis has been classified according to its aspect and plant source; however, the ecological diversity present along the Americas provides a plethora of botanical resins. Herein, we summarize and discuss most of the studies performed at present on this profitable product for apiculture, attempting to compare the bioactivity, phytochemical diversity and botanical sources of honeybee propolis produced in Americas.
Part of the book: Beekeeping and Bee Conservation
Liposomes are essential components in the development of functional materials for drug delivery; this is mainly due to its ability to self-associate spontaneously and form bilayer vesicles. In these potential applications, knowing the size of self-assembled liposomes is essential for optimal performance; however, this process still has many unanswered questions. Conventional experimental techniques to study self-assemblies of liposome nanoparticles still have a great challenge. Computational simulations emerge as an alternative to understand the role of thermodynamic properties responsible for the self-assembly, particularly when they are unreachable experimentally because of limited time and length resolutions. In this chapter, we present the advantages and disadvantages of dissipative particle dynamic method to explore the functioning of liposome self-assembly in the transport of drugs.
Part of the book: Liposomes