During the last 20 years, the main clinical effects of vitamin K2 on bone homeostasis have been investigated in both indirect and direct vitamin K treatment regimens. This chapter is mainly based on randomized clinical trials (RCT) lasting for more than 1 year. As for vitamin K1 (phylloquinone, indirect treatment) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone MK‐4 and MK‐7 direct treatment), respectively, the clinical trials have consistently shown decreased fracture rate incidents, however, mainly in Asian populations. In 2013, a major breakthrough was observed by Knapen et al. in the Netherlands, where menaquinone MK‐7 supplementation of 180 μg/day for 3 years to healthy postmenopausal women significantly decreased the age‐related decline in BMC (bone mineral contents) and BMD (bone mineral density) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but not at the total hip, as compared to placebo. Thus, MK‐7 supplementation has shown a significant “double”‐positive action through (1) increased bone building and (2) decreased bone resorption. We look forward to seeing the clinical effects on low bone mass and osteoporosis as well as other bone diseases.
Part of the book: Vitamin K2