This work presents a review of surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the soil with a focus on ex situ method. Conventional strategies of disposal methods in secure landfill and incineration have become cost prohibitive and environmentally risky and do not restore the contaminated soil, whereas chemical and physical methods have shown very limited success and can also be expensive.Traditional bioremediation pertaining to remedial technology of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil has empirically demonstrated limited success due to their low aqueous solubility. Addition of single synthetic surfactant or biosurfactant, or in combination, has the potential to increase their mass transfer phase, hence their bioavailability. Surfactant-enhanced biodegradation represents a promising cost-effective alternative to complete mineralization of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil. In this work, the potential of surfactants on the remediation of contaminated soil in an ex situ approach is reviewed with considerations given to the practical aspects of field components. Surfactant-enhanced biodegradation represents a promising cost-effective alternative to complete mineralization of hydrophobic organic contaminants in soil. In this work, the potential of surfactants on the remediation of contaminated soil in an ex situ approach is reviewed with considerations given to the practical aspects of field components.
Part of the book: Soil Contamination
Prediction of fate and behavior of radionuclides in the environment is largely governed by sorption processes. Radionuclides physico-chemical species interacting with prevailing abiotic properties of the environment vary widely among varying constituting environmental components. Herein, this work discussed the most significant aspects of sorption processes and properties at the solid-water interface. Main sorption mechanisms were investigated using kinetic, thermodynamic analyses, and various mathematical models in current use for description of sorption–desorption processes in the environment. Knowledge of environmental transport, environmental pathways, and exposure pathways to radionuclides is also an important aspect of any strategy to protect the public and the natural ecosystems. In the final analysis, the choice of a functional sorption equation model will be dictated by the risk-based under consideration, the level of information available, and the intrinsic accuracy of the predictive model.
Part of the book: Principles and Applications in Nuclear Engineering
Soil contaminated with ubiquitous hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) is a worldwide recurring concern arising from their indiscriminate disposal, improper management, and accidental spills. A wide range of traditional remedial strategies have been the common practice. However, these treatment methods have become cost prohibitive, not environmental friendly, and less accepted by society. Surfactant-enhanced remediation technology represents a cost-effective and green technology alternative to remediate such contaminated sites. Surfactant remediation technologies are conducted in-situ or ex-situ as two broad categories, or in combination. Among these technologies are soil flushing, washing, phytoremediation, and bioremediation. More applied research continues to quantify the efficiency of surfactant-enhanced mass transfer phase using a single surfactant solution while their binary blends to remove mixed HOCs in soils are also a focus of interest for research. There is a great potential to develop novel synthetic and biosurfactants that will exhibit higher biodegradability, less toxicity, higher removal efficiency, more economical and more recyclable. This work thus provides a review of the applications and importance of surfactant-enhanced remediation of soil contaminated with HOCs. Relevant environmental factors, soil properties, surfactant chemistry, mechanisms, mass transfer phase, and field designs are summarized and discussed with purposes of providing greater context and understanding of surfactant-enhanced remediation systems.
Part of the book: Surfactants and Detergents