Bioinformatics, a computer-assisted science aiming at managing a huge volume of genomic data, is an emerging discipline that combines the power of computers, mathematical algorithms, and statistical concepts to solve multiple genetic/biological puzzles. This science has progressed parallel to the evolution of genome-sequencing tools, for example, the next-generation sequencing technologies, that resulted in arranging and analyzing the genome-sequencing information of large genomes. Synergism of “plant omics” and bioinformatics set a firm foundation for deducing ancestral karyotype of multiple plant families, predicting genes, etc. Second, the huge genomic data can be assembled to acquire maximum information from a voluminous “omics” data. The science of bioinformatics is handicapped due to lack of appropriate computational procedures in assembling sequencing reads of the homologs occurring in complex genomes like cotton (2n = 4x = 52), wheat (2n = 6x = 42), etc., and shortage of multidisciplinary-oriented trained manpower. In addition, the rapid expansion of sequencing data restricts the potential of acquisitioning, storing, distributing, and analyzing the genomic information. In future, inventions of high-tech computational tools and skills together with improved biological expertise would provide better insight into the genomes, and this information would be helpful in sustaining crop productivities on this planet.
Part of the book: Bioinformatics
Cotton is an important cash crop, providing raw material for different industries and plays crucial role in the economy of several countries. It requires optimum temperature for economic production and causes reduced yield otherwise. Extreme temperature, more importantly, high temperature causes serious yield reduction in cotton by affecting its physiology, biochemistry and quality leading to poor agronomic produce. Freezing temperature also affect the germination percentage and seedling establishment. Several breeding and genomics based studies were conducted to improve the cotton production under high and low temperature stress in cotton. Here we overviewed several agronomic practices to mitigate the effect of extreme temperature, and multiple breeding and molecular approaches to enhance the genetic potential of cotton for temperature tolerance by Marker assisted selection or transgenic approach.
Part of the book: Past, Present and Future Trends in Cotton Breeding