Open access

Introductory Chapter: Current Trends in Wheat Research

Written By

Nazia Nahid, Parwsha Zaib, Tayyaba Shaheen, Kanval Shaukat, Akmaral U. Issayeva and Mahmood-ur-Rahman Ansari

Published: 11 May 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.103763

From the Edited Volume

Current Trends in Wheat Research

Edited by Mahmood-ur-Rahman Ansari

Chapter metrics overview

235 Chapter Downloads

View Full Metrics

1. Introduction

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is known as one of the most important cereal crops and is extensively grown worldwide [1]. Wheat contributes to 50% and 30% of the global grain trade and production respectively [2]. Wheat is also known as a staple food in more than 40 countries of the world. Wheat provides 82% of basic calories and 85% of proteins to the world population [3, 4]. Wheat-based food is rich in fiber contents than meat-based food. Dough produced from bread wheat flour has different viscoelastic properties than other cereals. It is considered a higher fiber food. Therefore, its positive effects on controlling cholesterol, glucose, and intestinal functions in the body were observed [5]. Primarily, wheat is being used to make Chapatti (Bread) but it also contributes to other bakery products. Wheat utility and high nutritional value made it the staple food for more than 1/3rd population of the world. Wheat grain is separated from the chaff and stalks after the harvesting of wheat. Stalks of wheat are further used in animal bedding and construction material. Globally, the need for wheat production is enhancing even in countries having unfavorable climates for its production. Global climate changes are badly affecting the production of wheat and it raised the concern for food security.

It is estimated that annual cereal production should be increased by 1 billion tons to feed the expected population of 9.1 billion by 2050 [1]. The current scenario demands an increase in crop productivity to meet the increased requirements of food supply [6]. Wheat is grown in tropical and subtropical regions which experiences a lot of stress. These stresses result in a reduction of yield [7]. Major environmental stresses include cold, salinity, heat, and drought which are drastically affecting its yield. However, water and heat are considered as the key environmental stresses which caused in reduction of the wheat yield globally [8, 9]. So, genetic improvements related to yield and stress tolerance are mandatory to enhance the production of wheat [10, 11].


2. Genetically modified wheat plants

Genetically modified wheat plants have been produced by the use of bacteria. Wheat plants were inoculated with the plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) which resulted in the higher expression of abiotic stress (mainly drought and salinity) tolerant genes [12]. PGPB inoculated wheat cultivars also showed the higher expression of genes encoding antioxidant-enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). So, it was concluded that PGPB used in wheat plants resulted in increased tolerance to abiotic stresses [12]. Cold shock proteins increase the survival of bacteria in severe environmental conditions. CspA and CspB genes from bacteria were transformed into wheat. Transgenic wheat plants expressing SeCspA and SeCspB were observed to have decreased water loss rate, increased proline and chlorophyll contents under salinity, and less water-stress conditions [13]. It was further investigated that SeCsp transgenic wheat plants resulted in enhanced weight and yield of grain than the control plants. SeCspA transgenic wheat plants were observed to have an improved water-stress tolerance than the control plants (Table 1, [13]).

S. No.Gene NameTrait/PhenotypeReference
1.ZmDof1Increased yield[14]
2.TaNFY-A-B1Increased Nitrogen and Phosphorus uptake[15]
3.TaNF-YB4More grain yield[16]
4.TaNAC2-5AMore root growth[17]
5.OsSS-IIncreased heat tolerance[18]
6.TaGS2More yield[19]
7.ZmAGPaseMore yield[20]
8.NtNRMore yield, More seed protein contents[21]
9.TaVIT2Iron biofortification[22]
10.HD-ZipIDrought and frost tolerance[23]
11.DREB1ADrought tolerant[24]
12.CspA & CspBDrought-stress tolerance[25]
13.HaHB4Abiotic-stress tolerance[26]
14.TaDREB3Drought-stress tolerance[27]

Table 1.

Development of transgenic wheat having various traits/phenotypes.

Gluten is a protein comprised of gliadins found in wheat. Gluten is the main cause of coeliac disease in individuals. Bread-making quality of wheat is determined by the gluten proteins. Wheat varieties with less gliadin contents were produced using gene-editing technologies and RNAi (RNA interference). Wheat lines lacking immunogenic gluten were produced. Low immunogenic gluten and more nutritional values were added in one wheat line named E82. A better microbiota profile (protection microorganisms available in the gut) was observed in the NCWS patients using the bread made with E82 [28]. Plant cuticle has a positive role in the protection of plant against biotic and abiotic stresses. Wheat plants transformed with TaSHN1 resulted in increased water-stress tolerance by reducing the leaf stomatal density and changing the composition of the cuticle [29].


3. Biotic stress tolerance in wheat

Wheat is considered an excessive contributor toward the human calorie intake [30]. Pests and pathogens cause yield losses in wheat up to 21.5% of the total losses and could be reached to 28.1% [31]. Wheat is affected by the fungal disease, powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Powdery mildew is a damaging disease that resulted in greater loss of wheat [32]. Broad-spectrum resistant genes (BSR) are considered to have the most significant role to control powdery mildew. CMPG1-V gene was cloned from the Hynaldia villosa and it was observed that higher expression of CMPG1-V gene resulted in the Broad-spectrum resistance against powdery mildew [33, 34]. Barley chi26 gene could also be used to enhance the resistance against powdery mildew and rust through genetic modification [35]. Some epigenetic regulators were determined to have a role in wheat powdery mildew resistance. TaHDT701 is a histone deacetylase that was found as a negative regulator of wheat defense against powdery mildew. TaHDT701 was observed to be associated with the one repeat protein (TaHOS15) and RPD3 type histone deacetylase TaHDA6. Knockdown of this histone deacetylase complex (TaHDT701, TaHDA6, TaHOS15) in wheat resulted in increased powdery mildew tolerance [36].

Fusarium graminearum is a plant fungal pathogen that causes a devastating disease called Fusarium head blight in wheat. It results in the reduction of wheat production. Genetic techniques were used to increase the FHB (Fusarium head blight) resistance in wheat. Transgenic wheat plants expressing barley class II chitinase gene 2 were observed to have a higher resistance against Fusarium graminearum [37]. Lr10 and Lr21 were cloned and transformed into wheat. The transgenic plants were reported to be resistant to leaf rust disease. Evolution and diversification of HIPPs (heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant proteins) genes were studied in Triticeae [38]. HIPPs genes of Hynaldia villosa were cloned through homology-based cloning. Transgenic wheat having HIPP1-V was developed and the role of HIPP1-V in cadmium stress was characterized. It was observed that higher expression of this gene resulted in increased tolerance to cadmium stress. Therefore, HIPP1-V could be used to increase the tolerance in wheat against cadmium [39].


4. Abiotic stress tolerance in wheat

Grain number, weight, and size are greatly reduced under the negative effects of environmental stresses. However, the timing, duration, and intensity of stress determine the severity of the negative effects [40, 41]. Wheat is a major source of protein and calories for the human diet. High temperature is badly affecting the yield of wheat which is a main concern worldwide. Drought and heat stresses are the two main abiotic stresses which are playing a greater role in the reduction of wheat yield. Reduction in starch contents, photosynthetic activity, grain number, and chlorophyll contents in the endosperm is caused due to rise in temperature. Heat stress results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is the main reason for higher oxidative damage to the plant. Heat stress also results in the variation of wheat biochemistry, morphology, and physiology. Tolerance, avoidance, and escape are known as the three major mechanisms that support the plant to grow in a heat-stress environment. Major heat tolerance mechanisms in wheat are known as stay green, heat shock proteins, and antioxidant defense [42]. Protein synthesis and folding were observed to be interrupted during heat stress. Heat stress also resulted in the production of several stress agents badly affecting transcription, translation, and DNA replication in plants [43]. Plants speed up the production of heat shock proteins as a defense mechanism [44]. Higher activity of antioxidants, such as peroxidases, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, was observed under heat stress. Wheat cultivar showing greater tolerance to heat stress was observed to have higher activity of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and S-transferase [45].

Salt stress greatly affects the growth of wheat plants. Salinity stress has a higher impact on the morphology and physiology of wheat plants. Plants having less tolerance to salinity are not suitable for cropping. Potassium transporter (HKT) genes have a greater role in achieving salinity tolerance in wheat. Sodium (Na+) exclusion through HKT genes is a major mechanism in wheat to have a salinity tolerance. OsMYBSs and AtAB14 are the transcription factors having a role in regulating HKT genes, which are considered as the candidate targets for increasing salinity tolerance in wheat [46]. Wheat transformed with a mutated transcription factor, HaHB4 showed higher water-use efficiency and was more yielding under drought stress [26]. Transgenic wheat expressing GmDREB1 gene from soybean was also observed to have higher drought tolerance under water-stress conditions [47]. DREB1A gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was introduced to bread wheat and increased tolerance against water stress in the transgenic wheat was observed. Bread wheat under drought stress was observed to have a higher level of WRKY proteins [48]. Higher expression of AtHDG11 gene in transgenic wheat resulted in increased water-stress tolerance during drought-stress conditions. Enhanced TaNAC69 expression in root and leaf of wheat during drought stress was observed [49]. Researchers are working to develop transgenic wheat having various traits/phenotypes by using advanced approaches of biotechnology for the last several decades (Table 1). Numbers of transgenic wheat cultivars are being grown in the fields and several more are under trial.


5. CRISPR/Cas9 system in wheat

Gliadins and glutenins are known as the gluten proteins and ingestion of these proteins from barley, rye, and wheat could cause the disease called coeliac disease in humans. The only remedy is to develop gluten-free food. Transgenic wheat which retains baking quality and is safe for coeliac could not be produced using conventional methods because of the complexity of the wheat genome. Coeliac disease (CD) is activated by the immunogenic isotopes mainly gliadins. Gliadin families were downregulated by the use of RNA interference. CRISPR/Cas9 is a targeted gene manipulation tool considered to have a potential role in genetic modification (Table 2, [60, 61]). CRISPR/Cas9 system was recently used for gene editing of gliadins. Offsprings with deleted, edited, or silenced gliadins were produced by CRISPR/Cas9. They helped to decrease the exposure of the patient to the CD epitopes [62]. This technology has been used to develop wheat cultivars having gluten genes with inactivated CD epitopes [62, 63].

S. No.Gene NameTrait/PhenotypeReference
1.TaMLOPowdery mildew resistance[50]
2.TaPHO2-A1Improved Phosphorus uptake[51]
3.TaGASR7Improved yield[52]
4.TaEDR1Powdery mildew resistance[53]
5.TaGW2Improved yield[54]
6.TaMs1Male sterility[55]
7.TaSBEIIaHigh amylase contents[56]
8.TaLOX2Improved quality[57]
9.TaALSHerbicide tolerance[58]
10.TaACCHerbicide tolerance[59]

Table 2.

Genome edited wheat developed by CRISPR/Cas9 system.

CRISPR/Cas9 system and TALENS (transcription activator-like effector nuclease) were used in the bread wheat to generate the mutations in three homoeoalleles that encode MLO locus proteins against mildew. Mutations in all three TaMLO were generated by using TALENS which resulted in resistance against powdery mildew. The MLO homoeoalleles (TaMLOA1, TaMLOB1, and TaMLOD1) of bread wheat contributed to the mildew infection. Mutation of MLO alleles resulted in powdery mildew tolerance in wheat [50]. Genome editing was reported in which pds (phytoene desaturase) and inox (inositol oxygenase) genes in the cell suspension-culture of wheat were targeted. It was demonstrated that the genome-editing technique could also be applied in the cell suspension of wheat [64]. Very recently, various research groups are involved to develop transgenic wheat by using genome-editing technology. Some of the experiments are listed in Table 2.


6. Wheat computational analysis

A comprehensive resource for wheat reference genome was developed by International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium. The URGI portal ( was developed for the breeders and researchers to access the genome sequence data of bread-wheat. InterMine tools, genome browser, and BLAST were established for the exploration of genome sequences together with the additional linked datasets, including gene expression, physical maps, and sequence variation. Portal provided the higher browser and search features that facilitated the use of the latest genomic resources required for the upgradation of wheat [65].

DNA binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factors is known to have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance as well as the growth of plants. Ninety-six TaDof members of the gene family have been studied using computational approaches. By qPCR analysis, it was revealed that TaDof genes were upregulated under heavy metal and heat stress in wheat. Consequently, it could be concluded that detection of amino acid sites, genome-wide analysis, and identification of the Dof transcription factor family could provide us the new insight into the function, structure, and evolution of the Dof gene family [66].



This work was supported by funds from the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan.


  1. 1. FAO. World Food and Agriculture-FAO Statistical Pocketbook. Rome, Italy: FAO; 2015
  2. 2. Akter N, Islam MR. Heat stress effects and management in wheat: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2017;37(5):1-17
  3. 3. Chaves MS, Martinelli JA, Wesp-Guterres C, Graichen FAS, Brammer SP, Scagliusi SM, et al. The importance for food security of maintaining rust resistance in wheat. Food Security. 2013;5(2):157-176
  4. 4. Sharma D, Singh R, Tiwari R, Kumar R, Gupta VK. Wheat responses and tolerance to terminal heat stress: A review. In: Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Hossain M, editors. Wheat Production in Changing Environments. Singapore: Springer; 2019. pp. 149-173
  5. 5. Giraldo P, Benavente E, Manzano-Agugliaro F, Gimenez E. Worldwide research trends on wheat and barley: A bibliometric comparative analysis. Agronomie. 2019;9(7):352
  6. 6. Iqbal M, Raja NI, Yasmeen F, Hussain M, Ejaz M, Shah MA. Impacts of heat stress on wheat: A critical review. Advances in Crop Science and Technology. 2017;5(1):01-09
  7. 7. Rahaie M, Xue GP, Schenk PM. The role of transcription factors in wheat under different abiotic stresses. Abiotic Stress - Plant Responses and Applications in Agriculture. 2013;2:367-385
  8. 8. Lesk C, Rowhani P, Ramankutty N. Influence of extreme weather disasters on global crop production. Nature. 2016;529(7584):84-87
  9. 9. Liu B, Asseng S, Müller C, Ewert F, Elliott J, Lobell DB, et al. Similar estimates of temperature impacts on global wheat yield by three independent methods. Nature Climate Change. 2016;6(12):1130-1136
  10. 10. Tester M, Langridge P. Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world. Science. 2010;327(5967):818-822
  11. 11. He Z, Joshi AK, Zhang W. Climate vulnerabilities and wheat production. In: Pielke RA, editor. Climate Vulnerability: Understanding and Addressing Threats to Essential Resources. Waltham: Academic Press; 2013. pp. 57-67
  12. 12. Sudan J, Sharma D, Mustafiz A, Kumari S. Signaling peptides: Hidden molecular messengers of abiotic stress perception and response in plants. In: Zargar S, Zargar M, editors. Abiotic Stress-Mediated Sensing and Signaling in Plants: An Omics Perspective. Singapore: Springer; 2018. pp. 95-125
  13. 13. Yu TF, Xu ZS, Guo JK, Wang YX, Abernathy B, Fu JD, et al. Improved drought tolerance in wheat plants overexpressing a synthetic bacterial cold shock protein gene SeCspA. Scientific Reports. 2017;7(1):1-4
  14. 14. Peña PA, Quach T, Sato S, Ge Z, Nersesian N, Changa T, et al. Expression of the maize Dof1 transcription factor in wheat and sorghum. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017;8:434
  15. 15. Qu B, He X, Wang J, Zhao Y, Teng W, Shao A, et al. A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription factor increases the grain yield of wheat with less fertilizer input. Plant Physiology. 2015;167(2):411-423
  16. 16. Yadav D, Shavrukov Y, Bazanova N, Chirkova L, Borisjuk N, Kovalchuk N, et al. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2015;66(21):6635-6650
  17. 17. He X, Qu B, Li W, Zhao X, Teng W, Ma W, et al. The nitrate-inducible NAC transcription factor TaNAC2-5A controls nitrate response and increases wheat yield. Plant Physiology. 2015;169(3):1991-2005
  18. 18. Tian B, Talukder SK, Fu J, Fritz AK, Trick HN. Expression of a rice soluble starch synthase gene in transgenic wheat improves the grain yield under heat stress conditions. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Plant. 2018;54(3):216-227
  19. 19. Hu M, Zhao X, Liu Q , Hong X, Zhang W, Zhang Y, et al. Transgenic expression of plastidic glutamine synthetase increases nitrogen uptake and yield in wheat. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2018;16(11):1858-1867
  20. 20. Smidansky ED, Meyer FD, Blakeslee B, Weglarz TE, Greene TW, Giroux MJ. Expression of a modified ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase large subunit in wheat seeds stimulates photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. Planta. 2007;225(4):965-976
  21. 21. Zhao XQ , Nie XL, Xiao XG. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e74678
  22. 22. Connorton JM, Jones ER, Rodríguez-Ramiro I, Fairweather-Tait S, Uauy C, Balk J. Wheat vacuolar iron transporter TaVIT2 transports Fe and Mn and is effective for biofortification. Plant Physiology. 2017;174(4):2434-2444
  23. 23. Yang Y, Luang S, Harris J, Riboni M, Li Y, Bazanova N, et al. Overexpression of the class I homeodomain transcription factor Ta HDZ ipI-5 increases drought and frost tolerance in transgenic wheat. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2018;16(6):1227-1240
  24. 24. Saint Pierre C, Crossa JL, Bonnett D, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Reynolds MP. Phenotyping transgenic wheat for drought resistance. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2012;63(5):1799-1808
  25. 25. Castiglioni P, Warner D, Bensen RJ, Anstrom DC, Harrison J, Stoecker M, et al. Bacterial RNA chaperones confer abiotic stress tolerance in plants and improved grain yield in maize under water-limited conditions. Plant Physiology. 2008;147(2):446-455
  26. 26. González FG, Capella M, Ribichich KF, Curín F, Giacomelli JI, Ayala F, et al. Field-grown transgenic wheat expressing the sunflower gene HaHB4 significantly outyields the wild type. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2019;70(5):1669-1681
  27. 27. Shavrukov Y, Baho M, Lopato S, Langridge P. The TaDREB3 transgene transferred by conventional crossings to different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat improves drought tolerance. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2016;14:313-322
  28. 28. García-Molina MD, Giménez MJ, Sánchez-León S, Barro F. Gluten free wheat: Are we there? Nutrients. 2019;11(3):487
  29. 29. Bi H, Shi J, Kovalchuk N, Luang S, Bazanova N, Chirkova L, et al. Overexpression of the TaSHN1 transcription factor in bread wheat leads to leaf surface modifications, improved drought tolerance, and no yield penalty under controlled growth conditions. Plant, Cell and Environment. 2018;41(11):2549-2566
  30. 30. Godfray HC, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, et al. Food security: The challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science. 2010;327(5967):812-818
  31. 31. Savary S, Willocquet L, Pethybridge SJ, Esker P, McRoberts N, Nelson A. The global burden of pathogens and pests on major food crops. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2019;3(3):430-439
  32. 32. Menardo F, Praz CR, Wyder S, Ben-David R, Bourras S, Matsumae H, et al. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species. Nature Genetics. 2016;48(2):201-205
  33. 33. Zhu Y, Li Y, Fei F, Wang Z, Wang W, Cao A, et al. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG 1–V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The Plant Journal. 2015;84(1):154-168
  34. 34. Liu J, Sun L, Chen Y, Wei L, Hao Y, Yu Z, et al. The regulatory network of CMPG1-V in wheat–Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici interaction revealed by temporal profiling using RNA-Seq. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(17):5967
  35. 35. Eissa HF, Hassanien SE, Ramadan AM, El-Shamy MM, Saleh OM, Shokry AM, et al. Developing transgenic wheat to encounter rusts and powdery mildew by overexpressing barley chi26 gene for fungal resistance. Plant Methods. 2017;13(1):1-3
  36. 36. Zhi P, Kong L, Liu J, Zhang X, Wang X, Li H, et al. Histone deacetylase TaHDT701 functions in TaHDA6-TaHOS15 complex to regulate wheat defense responses to Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(7):2640
  37. 37. Shin S, Mackintosh CA, Lewis J, Heinen SJ, Radmer L, Dill-Macky R, et al. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2008;59(9):2371-2378
  38. 38. Zhang H, Zhang X, Liu J, Niu Y, Chen Y, Hao Y, et al. Characterization of the heavy-metal-associated Isoprenylated plant protein (HIPP) gene family from Triticeae species. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(17):6191
  39. 39. Hura T. Wheat and barley: Acclimatization to abiotic and biotic stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020;21(19):7423
  40. 40. Foulkes MJ, Scott RK, Sylvester-Bradley R. The ability of wheat cultivars to withstand drought in UK conditions: Formation of grain yield. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 2002;138(2):153-169
  41. 41. Weldearegay DF, Yan F, Jiang D, Liu F. Independent and combined effects of soil warming and drought stress during anthesis on seed set and grain yield in two spring wheat varieties. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 2012;198(4):245-253
  42. 42. Poudel PB, Poudel MR. Heat stress effects and tolerance in wheat: A review. Journal of Biology and Today's World. 2020;9(3):1-6
  43. 43. Biamonti G, Caceres JF. Cellular stress and RNA splicing. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 2009;34(3):146-153
  44. 44. Gupta SC, Sharma A, Mishra M, Mishra RK, Chowdhuri DK. Heat shock proteins in toxicology: How close and how far? Life Sciences. 2010;86(11-12):377-384
  45. 45. Balla K, Bencze S, Janda T, Veisz O. Analysis of heat stress tolerance in winter wheat. Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 2009;57(4):437-444
  46. 46. Kunika BK, Singh PK, Rani V, Pandey GC. Salinity tolerance in wheat: An overview. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2019;6:815-820
  47. 47. Shiqing GA, Huijun XU, Xianguo C, Ming C, Zhaoshi XU, Liancheng L, et al. Improvement of wheat drought and salt tolerance by expression of a stress-inducible transcription factor GmDREB of soybean (Glycine max). Chinese Science Bulletin. 2005;50:2714-2723, 2723
  48. 48. Okay S, Derelli E, Unver T. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress. Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 2014;289(5):765-781
  49. 49. Xue GP, Bower NI, McIntyre CL, Riding GA, Kazan K, Shorter R. TaNAC69 from the NAC superfamily of transcription factors is up-regulated by abiotic stresses in wheat and recognises two consensus DNA-binding sequences. Functional Plant Biology. 2006;33(1):43-57
  50. 50. Wang Y, Cheng X, Shan Q , Zhang Y, Liu J, Gao C, et al. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew. Nature Biotechnology. 2014;32(9):947-951
  51. 51. Ouyang X, Hong X, Zhao X, Zhang W, He X, Ma W, et al. Knock out of the PHOSPHATE 2 gene TaPHO2-A1 improves phosphorus uptake and grain yield under low phosphorus conditions in common wheat. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:29850
  52. 52. Zhang Y, Liang Z, Zong Y, Wang Y, Liu J, Chen K, et al. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA. Nature Communications. 2016;7:12617
  53. 53. Zhang Y, Bai Y, Wu G, Zou S, Chen Y, Gao C, et al. Simultaneous modification of three homoeologs of TaEDR1 by genome editing enhances powdery mildew resistance in wheat. The Plant Journal. 2017;91:714-724
  54. 54. Wang W, Mauleon R, Hu Z, Chebotarov D, Tai S, Wu Z, et al. Genomic variation in 3,010 diverse accessions of Asian cultivated rice. Nature. 2018;557(7703):43-49
  55. 55. Okada A, Arndell T, Borisjuk N, Sharma N, Watson-Haigh NS, Tucker EJ, et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Ms1 enables the rapid generation of male-sterile hexaploid wheat lines for use in hybrid seed production. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2019;17:1905-1913
  56. 56. Li J, Jiao G, Sun Y, Chen J, Zhong Y, Yan L, et al. Modification of starch composition, structure and properties through editing of TaSBEIIa in both winter and spring wheat varieties by CRISPR/Cas9. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2020;19:937-951
  57. 57. Zong Y, Wang Y, Li C, Zhang R, Chen K, Ran Y, et al. Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9-cytidine deaminase fusion. Nature Biotechnology. 2017;35:438-440
  58. 58. Zhang R, Liu J, Chai Z, Chen S, Bai Y, Zong Y, et al. Generation of herbicide tolerance traits and a new selectable marker in wheat using base editing. Nature Plants. 2019;5:480-485
  59. 59. Zhang Y, Malzahn AA, Sretenovic S, Qi Y. The emerging and uncultivated potential of CRISPR technology in plant science. Nature Plants. 2019;5:778-794
  60. 60. Schaart JG, van de Wiel CC, Lotz LA, Smulders MJ. Opportunities for products of new plant breeding techniques. Trends in Plant Science. 2016;21(5):438-449
  61. 61. Van de Wiel CC, Schaart JG, Lotz LA, Smulders MJ. New traits in crops produced by genome editing techniques based on deletions. Plant Biotechnology Reports. 2017;11(1):1-8
  62. 62. Jouanin A, Gilissen LJ, Schaart JG, Leigh FJ, Cockram J, Wallington EJ, et al. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing of gluten in wheat to reduce gluten content and exposure—Reviewing methods to screen for coeliac safety. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2020;7:51
  63. 63. Jouanin A, Schaart JG, Boyd LA, Cockram J, Leigh FJ, Bates R, et al. Outlook for coeliac disease patients: Towards bread wheat with hypoimmunogenic gluten by gene editing of α-and γ-gliadin gene families. BMC Plant Biology. 2019;19(1):1-6
  64. 64. Upadhyay SK, Kumar J, Alok A, Tuli R. RNA-guided genome editing for target gene mutations in wheat. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 2013;3(12):2233-2238
  65. 65. Alaux M, Rogers J, Letellier T, Flores R, Alfama F, Pommier C, et al. Linking the international wheat genome sequencing consortium bread wheat reference genome sequence to wheat genetic and phenomic data. Genome Biology. 2018;19(1):1
  66. 66. Liu Y, Liu N, Deng X, Liu D, Li M, Cui D, et al. Genome-wide analysis of wheat DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) transcription factor genes: Evolutionary characteristics and diverse abiotic stress responses. BMC Genomics. 2020;21(1):1-8

Written By

Nazia Nahid, Parwsha Zaib, Tayyaba Shaheen, Kanval Shaukat, Akmaral U. Issayeva and Mahmood-ur-Rahman Ansari

Published: 11 May 2022