This chapter details the theoretical aspects of numerical methods for the simulation of atmospheric phenomena, such as severe thunderstorms and turbulent transport of the dangerous gases and solid particles into the atmospheric boundary layer. Numerical methods are included in computational algorithms to solve large turbulent scales using large eddy simulation (LES) techniques to obtain acceptable results of turbulent flows. However, microphysics processes involving evaporation, condensation and precipitation water using LES techniques are parameterized. These atmospheric processes are simulated using the advanced regional prediction systems (ARPS) code. On the contrary, atmospheric transport of pollutants is simulated using ARPS code coupled with a Lagrangian stochastic one-particle method. The theoretical details of this coupling are presented. Later, we show some laboratory experiments of plume dispersion emitted from gaseous sources, and the results of the computational simulation tool are compared after obtaining good agreement of the gas concentrations on the stream-wise vertical plane and over the ground. Finally, we present a simulation of a pollution event of copper solid particles at San Miguel de Tucumán city, Argentina. The geographical distributions of copper particle concentrations are in good agreement with the measurements carried out experimentally.
Part of the book: Atmospheric Hazards
In this chapter, an Euler-Lagrangian double-way coupled model is presented for simulating the liquid particle dispersion ejected from a high-pressure nozzle. The Eulerian code is advanced regional prediction system (ARPS), developed by Center of Analysis and Prediction of Storm (CAPS) and Oklahoma University, USA, which is specialized in weather simulation. This code is the double way coupled with a Lagrangian one-particle model. The theoretical remarks of the double-way coupling, the simulation of the liquid droplet trajectory, and, finally, the droplet collision in the spray cloud using a binary collision model are descripts. The results of droplet velocities and diameters are compared with experimental laboratory measurements. Finally, agrochemical spraying over a cultivated field in weak wind and high air temperature conditions is showed.
Part of the book: Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics for Emerging Engineering Processes