In this study, the trends of water and sediment data collected from three hydrometer stations over the past 25 years of development in the state of Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia, were analyzed using the Mann–Kendall and Pettitt’s tests. Landscape metrics for establishing the relationship between land use changes and trends of hydrological time series were calculated. The hydrologic trends were also studied in terms of rainfall variations and man-made features. Results indicated upward trends in water discharge at the Hulu Langat sub-basin and sediment load at the Semenyih sub-basin. These increasing trends were mainly caused by rapid changes in land use. Upward trends of hydrological series at the Hulu Langat sub-basin matched its rainfall pattern. At the Lui sub-basin, however, trends of hydrological series and variations in rainfall and land use were not statistically significant.
Part of the book: Landscape Ecology
A greenhouse is a complex environment in which various biological and non-biological phenomena occur. For simulation and prediction of the climate and plant growth changes in the greenhouse are necessary to provide mathematical models. The dynamic greenhouse climate models are classified in mechanistic and black-box models (ARX). Climatic models are mainly obtained using energy balance or computational fluid dynamics. In the energy balance models, the greenhouse climatic variables are considered uniformity and homogeneity, but in the computational fluid dynamics, the heterogeneity of the greenhouse environment can be shown by 3D simulation. Crop growth simulation models are quantitative tools based on scientific principles and mathematical relationships that can evaluate the different effects of climate, soil, water, and crop management factors on crop growth and development. In this chapter, with a review of the basics of climate models in greenhouses, the results and application of some climate dynamics models based on the energy balance as well as simulations performed with computational fluid dynamics are reviewed. A review of greenhouse growth models and functional–structural plant models (FSPM) was also conducted.
Part of the book: Next-Generation Greenhouses for Food Security