Sclerosis multiplex (multiple sclerosis, MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The immune regulatory defects lead to the process of inflammation and neurodegenerationthat results in the deterioration of neurological functions. It is still unclear as to why MS is so devastating and rapidly progressive in one patient and less so in another. It is known that the etiopathogenesis of MS is very complex, and many factors can be involved in the risk and character of the disease and its progression. In this chapter, we discuss the general molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of genetic and biochemical factors that are related to immune system regulation and thus can be connected to the individually varying risk and disability progression of MS. We found that gene variants of the gene polymorphism rs6897932 in interleukin 7 receptor α chain gene rs10735810 in vitamin D receptor gene and HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes as well as the serum level of vitamin D are associated with MS risk or disability progression in Central European Slovak population.
Part of the book: Trending Topics in Multiple Sclerosis