Myelodysplastic morphology of blood cells can be encountered not only in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) but also in nonclonal disorders like viral, bacterial, parasitic infections, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), iron deficiency anemia, megaloblastic anemia, dysgranulopoietic neutropenia, congenital neutropenia, cases with microdeletion 22q11.2, malignant lymphoma, after administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, chemotherapy, steroids, smoking, alcohol, posttransplantation, copper deficiency also, together with or without cytopenia. Absence of cytogenetic abnormality in 50–70% of cases with MDS, some overlapping morphological and/or pathophysiological features make it challenging to differentiate between MDS and other diseases/disorders like aplastic anemia, refractory ITP, copper deficiency. Transient genetic abnormalities including monosomy 7 in megaloblastic anemia; increased immature myeloid cells in bone marrow of cases with copper, vitamin B12, or folic acid deficiency in the setting of cytopenia and dysmorphism may also lead to the misdiagnosis of MDS. On the other hand, there are also cases of transient MDS. In this chapter, a literature is be presented to draw attention of the readers on the disorders that mimic MDS. Additionally, our personal experiences are also be shared. Awareness of disorders mimicking MDS may prevent over- or underdiagnosis of MDS.
Part of the book: Myelodysplastic Syndromes