Advancement in technology demands the successful utilization of energy and its management in a greater extent. Thermal energy management plays a crucial role from high-payload electrical instruments to ultra-small electronic circuitries. The advent of nanofluids that happened in the 1990s successfully addressed the low thermal efficiency of conventional fluids in a significant manner. The ground-breaking report on the concept of “nanofluids for thermal management” led to the development of numerous thermal fluids using nanofillers of ceramics, metals, semiconductors, various carbon nanostructures, and composite materials. Later, demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials and their successful bulk synthesis led to the development of highly efficient fluids with even very low filler fractions. Introduction of 2D materials into fluids also brought out the multifunctional aspects of fluids by using them in tribology. In this chapter, we narrate the advances in thermal nanofluids and the development of novel fluids with the discovery graphene. Multifunctional aspects of these fluids are discussed here. To support the experimental observation, a theoretical platform is discussed and its predictions are correlated on the basis of existing data. The chapter has been concluded with a brief discussion on futuristic aspects of nanofluids in real-life applications. This chapter aims to focus on the description of the thermal transport, tribological behavior, and aspects that involve the use of 2D-based nanofluids, from various 2D nanostructures such as h-BN, MoS2, WS2, graphene, among others. The homogeneous nanoparticle distribution within conventional fluids and the results from the thermal transport and tribological tests and observations are included. The nanofluids under investigation belong mainly to dielectric and metal-mechanic lubricants. Also, the mechanisms that promote these effects on the improvement of nanofluids properties are considered.
Part of the book: Two-dimensional Materials