Adakite was originally proposed as a genetic term to define intermediate to high silica, high Sr/Y and La/Yb volcanic and plutonic rocks derived from melting of young, subducted lithosphere. However, most volcanic rocks in modern island arcs and continental arcs are probably derived from melting in the mantle wedge. Trace element chemistry with high Sr/Y ratios is a distinguishing characteristic of adakites. Ordovician and Carboniferous volcanic/plutonic rocks with high Sr/Y ratios occur in Central Inner Mongolia, which is situated on the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The samples are mostly granodiorite, tonalite and quartz-diorite in composition with intermediate to high-silica, high Na2O (3.08–4.26 wt.%), low K2O (0.89–2.86 wt.%) and high Na2O/K2O and Sr/Y ratios. Their chondrite-normalized REE patterns are characterized by LREE enrichment. In mantle-normalized multi-element variation diagrams, they show typical negative Nb anomalies, and all samples display positive εHf(t) and εNd(t) values, and low ISr. The Ordovician rocks, however, show higher Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios than the Carboniferous samples, implying that the older granitoids represent adakitic granitoids, and the Carboniferous granitoids are typical subduction-related arc granitoids but also with adakite-like compositions. The results are compatible with the view that the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Inner Mongolia evolved through operation of several subduction systems with different polarities: an early-middle Paleozoic subduction and accretion system along the northern margin of the North China Craton and the southern margin of the Mongolian terrane, and late Paleozoic northward subduction along the northern orogen and exhumation of a high-pressure metamorphic terrane on the northern margin of the North China Craton.
Part of the book: Updates in Volcanology