During a subsea volcano eruption, gases and thermal water emissions are released. This might change the behaviour of the materials that are in contact with the seawater caused by the decrease of the pH value. For this reason, the materials for marine applications are selected to maintain the integrity of the structure and to be corrosion resistant. In spite of this, corrosion can cause great damage to marine steel infrastructures such as bridges, wharfs, platforms and pipeline systems. These corrosion problems could be aggravated if the medium is altered, due to volcano emissions, since the resistance of the surface film is influenced by the environmental conditions.
Part of the book: Updates in Volcanology
Nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides, such as TiO2, WO3, Fe2O3 or ZnO, are being widely investigated for their use as photoanodes, due to their higher surface areas in contact with the electrolyte, which increases the efficiency of photoelectrochemical processes. Metal oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by a number of different techniques. Anodization is one of the simpler methods used to synthesize nanostructured photoanodes, and the morphology and size of nanostructures can be designed by adequately controlling anodization parameters. Besides, these nanostructures are directly bound to the metallic back contact, improving significantly the efficiency of electron collection. It has been observed that hydrodynamic conditions during anodization (using a rotating disk electrode, RDE) greatly influenced the morphology of nanostructures and, therefore, their photoelectrochemical performance. The objective of this chapter is to review the innovative nanostructures with high-aspect ratios that can be fabricated by anodization under different hydrodynamic conditions.
Part of the book: Nanostructures in Energy Generation, Transmission and Storage