Viticulture and winery origins in Poland date to the tenth century, but their tradition has been reborn in the last ten years, resulting in a development of small vineyards producing excellent wines not only for the local market. Due to the cold climate, usually short summers with moderate and low temperatures, the grapes are characterized by lower sugar content and higher acidity compared to those grown in the south of Europe. According to the European Union regulations, Poland was classified as the coldest wine-growing region (A) and officially acknowledged as a wine-producing country. The grapevine cultivars adopted to the harsh climatic conditions give the Polish grape wines some unique sensory features. The most popular varieties of grapes for the production of red wine are Regent, Rondo, Pinot Noir, Maréchal Foch, Cabernet Cortis, Tryumf Alzacji, Cascade and Dornfelder. For white wine production, Solaris, Riesling, Seyval Blanc, Pinot Gris, Johanniter, Jutrzenka, Hibernal, Aurora, Bianka, Traminer, Jutrzenka and Siberia are mostly used in Poland. This chapter presents Polish grape winery with its specificity and prospects for the future. The traditional products of Polish fermentation industry, fruit wines and meads, are also mentioned.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology
Candida spp. strains are characterized by their ability to form a biofilm structure on biotic and abiotic surfaces, causing significant problems in many industrial branches and threatening human health. Candida biofilm is a heterogeneous, spatially well-organized structure consisting of planktonic and mycelial yeast forms which are interdependent in the quorum sensing system and surrounded by an extracellular polysaccharide substance. Biofilm-forming microorganisms are characterized by high invasiveness, the ability to cause dangerous and difficult to treat infections. Furthermore, the cells in the biofilm, compared to planktonic forms, show reduced sensitivity to chemical compounds with antifungal activity and increased survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. The chapter focuses on the emergence of antifungal resistance with the development of biofilms. The work presents the examples of antibiotic resistance of a variety of Candida, showing that a group of strains expressing intermediate sensitivity or resistance to the tested antibiotics include both clinical and food-borne isolates. Similarities in enzymatic and biochemical profiles of different origin isolates are discussed. A substantial heterogeneity within Candida albicans group is also underlined. Simultaneously, the incidents of biochemical profiles conformity of some clinical and food-borne isolates are presented, which may be a result of Candida transmission via food.
Part of the book: The Yeast Role in Medical Applications