Osseointegration is a biological process in which histological, surgical, infectious factors, biomechanical load, and the choice of biomaterials all play important roles. In the case of dental implants, the success of this process is also influenced by the design, composition, and properties of the implant surface, which may stimulate cell bioactivity and promote osteoblast adhesion. Currently, the raw materials most frequently used in the manufacture of dental implants are titanium, its alloys, and certain ceramic materials such as zirconia. Multiple macroscopic designs incorporating various diameters, lengths, shapes, and types of screw offer different options for specific clinical situations. The characteristics of implant surfaces have aroused great interest, due to their importance in osseointegration. The different methods used to modify surface properties are classified as additive (i.e., impregnation and coating) or subtractive (i.e., physical, mechanical and chemical methods). The surface characteristics of dental implants also have a significant influence on peri-implant microbiota.
Part of the book: Dental Implantology and Biomaterial