Antibiotics have been recommended either as an extended treatment for several days or as a single antibiotic prophylaxis dose since the development of dental implant osseointegration technique in the 1970s. It is also performed as part of surgical protocol during the peri-operative phase in the treatment of peri-implantitis. To date, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding the additive effect of antibiotics in the treatment of dental implant. This has thus left the clinician with inconclusive recommendations, leading to increase antibiotic prescription. With this increase, the development of antibiotic resistance is becoming a threat to modern healthcare that requires revisiting of current indications and implementation of rational treatment strategies. Therefore, more studies are needed to assess the benefit of antibiotic prescription and whether it is safe to refrain from its use.
Part of the book: Dental Implantology and Biomaterial
Dental implant surgery has been a successful therapeutic option for the rehabilitation of partially or completely edentulous jaws for many years. However, evidence regarding the causative factors of peri-implant disease is still lacking. Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues surrounding osseointegrated implant associated with the formation of a bacterial biofilm on the implant surface close to the marginal tissues. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the knowledge regarding the microbiota associated with peri-implant infection and to review the different microbial diagnostic tests to understand the peri-implant microbiota, as well as summarize the present knowledge regarding management of peri-implantitis and propose further recommendations for future studies. This chapter shows that the scientific data regarding the microbiota responsible for peri-implantitis initiation and progression are still inconclusive. A microbiological test may thus be one diagnostic method to be used to understand the complexity of microbiota associated with the peri-implant sulcus. However, in order to resolve inflammation and arrest disease progression, the understanding of the biofilm development is essential.
Part of the book: An Update of Dental Implantology and Biomaterial