Diabetic subjects have shown two- to fourfold increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than without diabetes. Diabetes can be prevented if detected early at prediabetes stage. Progression of diabetes not only causes hyperglycaemia; it also increased the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Different mechanisms, i.e. inflammation, abnormal adipocyte signalling, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress, are involved in the progression of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complication. These mechanisms alter different signalling molecules in blood and other body fluids. These altered molecules offer potential biomarkers for the identification and early detection of the disease progression. If we are able to detect the early biomarkers based on the alteration of different mediators responsible for cardiac complications in diabetes, we can prevent the cardiac diseases in diabetes by selective therapy. Different kinds of biomarkers, i.e. miRNA, protein, metabolites, cytokines, and adipokines, can be used together to detect the different stages of the disease. In the present book chapter, we are explaining briefly about characteristics of biomarkers and their applications and different approaches that were used to identify biomarkers. Different existing and novel biomarkers and their scope to detect patients with prediabetes, diabetes and cardiovascular complication in diabetes have been discussed.
Part of the book: Role of Biomarkers in Medicine