Endometrial cancer (EmCa) is the most common type of gynecological cancer. EmCa is the fourth most common cancer in the United States, which has been linked to increased incidence of obesity. EmCa can be classified into two main types: Type I and Type II, which include the major histological subtypes. Type I EmCa is hormonally driven, less aggressive, and has a more favorable prognosis. In contrast, Type II EmCa grows independently of hormonal signals, is more aggressive, and generally has an unfavorable prognosis. Various tumor biomarkers [i.e., tumor suppressor p53, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-α), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] have been identified in EmCa. Biomarkers of treatment effectiveness involve immunosuppressive factors targeted by microRNA (miRNA)-based therapy. However, there are no reliable biomarker tests for early detection of EmCa and treatment effectiveness. A potential new biomarker is Notch, Interleukin-1, leptin crosstalk outcome (NILCO) that could affect the progression of Type II EmCa. NILCO expression in EmCa might be dependent on patient’s obesity status. This chapter presents updated information on these, and other potential emerging biomarkers for EmCa, and discusses current challenges and clinical implications on this area of research.
Part of the book: Role of Biomarkers in Medicine