Several researchers are studying the winemaking potential of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in order to improve wine quality. For that purpose, yeast species such as Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida zemplinina, Kloeckera apiculata, Hansenula anomala and Pichia guilliermondii were studied in the past. Yeasts from the genus Schizosaccharomyces have been traditionally studied from a winemaking point of view due to its rapid malic acid deacidification, by converting malic acid to ethanol and CO2. Nevertheless, during the last 5 years, it has been discovered that Schizosaccharomyces pombe possesses several remarkable metabolic properties different from its traditional malic acid deacidification that may be useful in modern quality winemaking, including a malic dehydrogenase activity, high autolytic polysaccharides release, ability of gluconic acid reduction, urease activity in order to avoid ethyl carbamate formation, elevated production of pyruvic acid related to colour improvement, and low production of biogenic amines.
Part of the book: Grape and Wine Biotechnology
The effectiveness of winery operations in a wine cellar and their impact on wine quality depend closely on the technology used. A correct application of refrigeration systems is perhaps the best guarantee of a correct processing process. In this work, a review of the refrigeration engineering in warehouse is carried out, calculating the refrigeration needs of each one of the main stages of elaboration, according to the different winemakings. The energy requirements for the cold maceration and debourbage in white winemaking, the cooling of the crushed-grapes in the elaboration of red wine, as well as for the temperature control during fermentation and physical-chemical stabilization of the finished wine are calculated. The main cold production techniques in the winery are also addressed to respond to those needs.
Part of the book: Refrigeration