Endometrial cancer (EmCa) is the most common type of gynecological cancer. EmCa is the fourth most common cancer in the United States, which has been linked to increased incidence of obesity. EmCa can be classified into two main types: Type I and Type II, which include the major histological subtypes. Type I EmCa is hormonally driven, less aggressive, and has a more favorable prognosis. In contrast, Type II EmCa grows independently of hormonal signals, is more aggressive, and generally has an unfavorable prognosis. Various tumor biomarkers [i.e., tumor suppressor p53, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-α), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] have been identified in EmCa. Biomarkers of treatment effectiveness involve immunosuppressive factors targeted by microRNA (miRNA)-based therapy. However, there are no reliable biomarker tests for early detection of EmCa and treatment effectiveness. A potential new biomarker is Notch, Interleukin-1, leptin crosstalk outcome (NILCO) that could affect the progression of Type II EmCa. NILCO expression in EmCa might be dependent on patient’s obesity status. This chapter presents updated information on these, and other potential emerging biomarkers for EmCa, and discusses current challenges and clinical implications on this area of research.
Part of the book: Role of Biomarkers in Medicine
Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Currently, conventional chemotherapies have showed only limited benefits for PC patients. Main factors affecting PC treatment failures are due to late detection, lack of early symptoms and biomarkers, and the development of desmoplasia and chemoresistance. Various mechanisms have been implicated in PC chemoresistance that includes stem cells, epigenetic changes, and alteration of signaling pathways, among others. Obesity is a modifiable factor for PC risk, which is characterized by high levels of the adipokine leptin that is a proinflammatory, proangiogenic, survival factor that affects chemotherapy effectiveness. Here, we will discuss on the mechanisms of PC chemoresistance and the influence of obesity and leptin signaling. Furthermore, the potential use of nontoxic leptin antagonists as a novel sensitization strategy for PC chemotherapeutics will also be discussed.
Part of the book: Advances in Pancreatic Cancer