Social entrepreneurship as a practice that integrates economic and social value creation has a strong global presence. This chapter capitalizes on the evolution of the concept of social enterprise in the Western literature to analyze its manifestation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Specifically, using empirical evidence from seven Arab countries, this chapter documents the understanding and application of social enterprises in the MENA region. Through the voices of social entrepreneurs who are working across the MENA countries, we document how social enterprise is displayed in practice along with both the constraints and the opportunities facing social entrepreneurs across this region. This new context-specific approach is then used to shed light on the similarities and differences of social enterprise practices across the international scene and the MENA region. The findings presented highlight the uniqueness of social enterprise in the MENA context, combining elements of both European and American approaches, in addition to some context-specific features.
Part of the book: Social Enterprise
Globalization plays a significant role in driving the evolution of the CSR discourse and practice across developed and developing countries. The differential development of CSR across contexts is pervasive but undeniably relates to internationalization, modernization, and the globalization process. In this chapter, we look specifically at how globalization plays an important role in shaping CSR conceptions and practices in developing countries and how there is invariably an important counterpart process of indigenous translation and adaptation in context. The nuanced connotations and practices of CSR in a Middle Eastern region, namely the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), are analyzed closely to draw conclusions on the implications of globalization in terms of shaping key logics for CSR in non-western contexts. A qualitative inductive approach to content analysis is used where published articles on CSR perceptions, practices, and connotations in the six GCC countries are analyzed thoroughly. Statements regarding global forces of international best practices and their diffusion into local contexts, the translated western-centric CSR logics in the context of local political and socio-economic realities are extracted to form conclusions in relation to the adaptation of CSR in the global business environment of the GCC.
Part of the book: Globalization