In this chapter, up-to-date data regarding the nature of protein interaction with a contaminant such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is detailed. Considering that AFM1 is a relevant toxin present in milk and dairy products, it is important to understand such interaction. With this in mind, some specific features of protein chemistry and structure are discussed. AFM1 presence and origin in milk and the latest approaches in AFM1 chemical analysis with special attention to sample preparation techniques to eliminate milk protein–AFM1 interaction will also be addressed. Emphasis will be given to the interaction of AFM1 with whey proteins of which little has been described. In order to represent such interactions, recent scientific evidence is briefly discussed which describes the outcome, stability, and distribution of the toxin among the fractions, especially during the cheese-making process. An in silico model is presented in which some details of the AFM1-protein interactions are described. Finally, two technological applications of proteins in the food industry which are affected negatively by AFM1 contamination, are provided as an example of how the contaminant has a deep relationship in protein behaviour.
Part of the book: Milk Proteins
Aflatoxins are mold-synthetized secondary metabolites that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Aflatoxins hold a prominent place in the discussion on feed safety as are the only mycotoxins with the regulatory framework. Feed ingredients and composition inevitably affect the susceptibility of feed to fungal and toxin contamination. To verify that legal thresholds are being complied, avoiding delivering contaminated feed to animals, and obtain correct prevalence data, analytical methods must be developed which are apt for application on a complex matrix such as animal feed. These methods should include simple screening assays and high-end confirmatory ones. Laboratories without expensive equipment can and should be able to implement methods and to analyze and detect aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination is a complex issue that should be assessed interdisciplinarily and farm-to-fork models should be integrated into vigilance. In this chapter, we have devoted some lines to each of the aspects mentioned above focusing on feed aflatoxin contamination.
Part of the book: Aflatoxin
Aflatoxins are mold-synthetized secondary metabolites that are ubiquitously present in agricultural commodities, such as cereals which in turn are substantial part of feed formulation. These toxins are capable of causing disease, exert severe toxic effects, and even death in humans and other animals. Aflatoxins are the only mycotoxins with the regulatory framework, hence we present the legal threshold uphold till now by international and regional control organizations. Additionally, herein we discuss worldwide prevalence of aflatoxins in feeds to demonstrate a global issue and major risks involved in toxin contamination. Furthermore, we present recent data regarding negative effects usually presented by food-producing and companionship animals when ingested. Also, we discuss briefly practical approaches to mitigate aflatoxin burden during feed processing focusing in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) and we include novel approaches reported in literature to decontaminate feed-containing aflatoxins. Finally, we cite the literature so far published describing the effects of changing climate on aflatoxin production and contamination.
Part of the book: Aflatoxin