Part of the book: Genetic Diversity in Microorganisms
Part of the book: Milk Production
The particle size of milk influences its microstructure and defines the qualities of dairy products, such as colloidal stability and texture. Moreover, differences in casein micelle size may affect milk processing, especially cheese making. Hence, the size of casein micelle is an important characteristic of raw milk and determines the yield of dairy products. The aim of the present research is to estimate the casein micelle size in the raw milk of dairy cattle by dynamic light scattering. The obtained results may be used for genetic elaboration of the breed, as well as to increase the competitiveness of the milk industry by selection of animals with higher casein micelle size.
Part of the book: Milk Proteins
Honey bees are insects of great biological, ecological, and economic importance. They are the subject of a variety of scientific studies. As social insects, they are a preferred and widely used model for clarification of the evolution of social behavior. Because of the haplodiploidy as a mechanism for determining gender, differentiation in the functions of individuals in the bee family, and for its economic importance, Apis mellifera is a significant subject of research in the fields of ontogeny, population genetics, and selective breeding. The biological significance of bees is rooted in the fact that they are main pollinators in the natural environment. About 80% of the pollination of entomophilous plants is carried out by Apis mellifera. In all crops, active pollination significantly increases their yields. Honey bees are a valuable economic asset due to the ensemble of their products, which include honey, bee pollen, propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom, used by humans for food and treatment. The main objective of this chapter was to describe the basic methods used for genotyping of Apis mellifera in Bulgaria. These techniques have been useful to produce a system of population criteria, and taxonomically important molecular markers are applicable in future activities related to the preservation and selection of the Bulgarian honey bee.
Part of the book: Genotyping