The laser irradiation have shown a range of applications from fabricating, melting, and evaporating nanoparticles to changing their shape, structure, size, and size distribution. Laser induced plasma has used for different diagnostic and technological applications as detection, thin film deposition, and elemental identification. The possible interferences of atomic or molecular species are used to specify organic, inorganic or biological materials which allows critical applications in defense (landmines, explosive, forensic (trace of explosive or organic materials), public health (toxic substances pharmaceutical products), or environment (organic wastes). Laser induced plasma for organic material potentially provide fast sensor systems for explosive trace and pathogen biological agent detection and analysis. The laser ablation process starts with electronic energy absorption (~fs) and ends at particle recondensation (~ms). Then, the ablation process can be governed by thermal, non-thermal processes or a combination of both. There are several types of models, i.e., thermal, mechanical, photophysical, photochemical and defect models, which describe the ablation process by one dominant mechanism only. Plasma ignition process includes bond breaking and plasma shielding during the laser pulse. Bond breaking mechanisms influence the quantity and form of energy (kinetic, ionization and excitation) that atoms and ions can acquire. Plasma expansion depends on the initial mass and energy in the plume. The process is governed by initial plasma properties (electron density, temperature, velocity) after the laser pulse and the expansion medium. During first microsecond after the laser pulse, plume expansion is adiabatic afterwards line radiation becomes the dominant mechanism of energy loss.
Part of the book: Plasma Science and Technology
The description of plasma using fluid model is mostly insufficient and requires the consideration of velocity distribution which leads to kinetic theory. Kinetic theory of plasma describes and predicts the condition of plasma from microscopic interactions and motions of its constituents. It provides an essential basis for an introductory course on plasma physics as well as for advanced kinetic theory. Plasma kinetics deals with the relationship between velocity and forces and the study of continua in velocity space. Plasma kinetics mathematical equations provide aid to the readers in understanding simple tools to determine the plasma dynamics and kinetics as described in this chapter. Kinetic theory provides the basics and essential introduction to plasma physics and subsequently advanced kinetic theory. Plasma waves, oscillations, frequencies, and applications are the subjects of kinetic theory. In this chapter, mathematical formulations essential for exploring plasma kinetics are compiled and described simplistically along with a precise discussion on basic plasma parameters in simple language with illustrations in some cases.
Part of the book: Kinetic Theory
The wet chemical processing opens the way to deposit thin film with the versatility and ease for a variety of materials. Liquid film deposition involves the application of a liquid precursor on a substrate which is then converted to the required coating material in a subsequent post-treatment step. Different non-vacuum solution based deposition techniques have been developed to grow thin films with high efficiency and functionality. Spin coating is one of an effective technique for thin film fabrication due to low cost, uniformity, less hazardous, and capability of easy scaling up. The typical process involves depositing a small amount of a fluid onto the center of a substrate and then spinning the substrate at high speed. Dip coating is another simple, cost effective route with feasibility to scale-up for commercial production. The dip coating process can be divided into three important technical stages, immersion, withdrawal and evaporation. The coating may be subjected to further heat treatment in order to burn out residual compounds and induce crystallization of the functional oxides. Spray coating is a promising technique to grow thin film in research and industry to prepare thin and thick films. It is an easy approach to fabricate thin film with uniform distribution at small scale from a few nanometers to micrometers in thickness. Inkjet printing is the emerging promising technique to develop large-scale, and flexible thin films. The inkjet printing process allow easy customization to grow variety of complex structures.
Part of the book: Thin Films