Several arthropod species are important vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants, including protozoa, nematodes, bacteria, and viruses. Arthropods are also pests competing with humans for food and parasitize farm animals, decreasing their productivity. Historically, arthropod pests and disease vectors affecting public health, crop yields, and livestock production have been managed through the intensive use of pesticides. The widespread use of pesticides is a major problem because most of the economically important arthropod species have developed resistance to currently used pesticides. The impact of pesticide resistance is multifactorial and involves losses due to the heavy use of pesticides, environmental pollution, decreased profitability, food contamination, and public health problems due to pesticide exposure. An indirect consequence of pesticide resistance is the mortality caused by arthropod-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria in humans and babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle. The understanding of molecular mechanisms and adaptations to resistance in arthropods is an important issue. However, the molecular mechanisms of pesticide resistance remain to be fully understood. Understanding of resistance mechanisms will contribute significantly to improve integrated managements programs and to discover new targets for vaccine development to mitigate the effects of pesticide-resistant arthropods on agriculture and public health.
Part of the book: Insecticides Resistance
Resistance to insecticides is one of the major obstacles to the control of agricultural pests, as well as species important to human and veterinary health. The World Health Organization has called insecticide resistance “the great little obstacle against vector-borne diseases”. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important vector, transmitting diseases to cattle such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis. These diseases cause great economic losses that significantly increased because of the appearance of tick populations resistant to acaricides, as a result of the intensive use of pesticides. Resistance to ixodicides in Latin America is a growing problem, since control of disease-transmitting ticks, depends heavily on the use of pesticides. In Mexico, the resistance of R. microplus to organophosphate compounds, pyrethroids, and recently amidines, has been detected in some areas, affected by multiple acaricide resistance to the three families of ixodicides. The cattle tick R. microplus in addition to the great ecological impact represents the most expensive pest for livestock in Mexico, since the producers are directly affected by this tick, due to the decrease in the production of meat, milk and damage to the skin, as well as the indirect damage, such as the transmission of diseases, including Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis, which, in turn, represents a serious limitation for the introduction of specialized cattle in endemic areas. Therefore, the use of integrated management programs is a mandatory issue that should be implemented in all those areas affected by this parasite.
Part of the book: Insecticides