Digestive endoscopy represents an essential diagnostic and curative tool used when presented with a suspicion of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Its role is not only confined to primary detection but also to establishing the severity of a lesion and providing relevant information regarding its risk of bleeding. New endoscopic techniques, accessories and compounds make the minimally invasive treatment suitable for a vast array of lesion types. Our main goal in this chapter is to summarize the main presentation of lesions at risk of bleeding, briefly classify them according to the gastrointestinal segment and finally detail the endoscopic treatment options currently available.
Part of the book: Endoscopy
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with its two entities, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Risk factors for CRC are represented by the duration of the disease, extent of disease, the association of primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history, and early age at onset. In inflammatory bowel disease, colonic carcinogenesis appears on an inflamed colon, being determined by different genetic alterations. The main element of the process of carcinogenesis is the dysplasia, which is a neoplastic intraepithelial transformation, limited to the basal membrane surrounding the glands around which it appears. The stages of carcinogenesis process start with dysplasia of varying degrees as follows: indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and finally invasive adenocarcinoma.
Part of the book: Colorectal Cancer