Despite widespread use in clinical practice for over 30 years, many questions remain unanswered regarding fluid convection and reinfusion strategies in haemodiafiltration (HDF). Randomised controlled trials have failed to consistently demonstrate improved survival with convective therapies, but a dose-dependent improvement in outcome has been suggested. The ‘minimum’ and ‘ideal’ volumes of convection are undefined. Online generation of ultrapure dialysis fluid has allowed unprecedented convection volumes; however, delivery of fluid directly into the blood circuit requires strict monitoring. The replacement fluid may be reinfused at multiple points in the circuit. Post-dilution HDF is highly efficient in terms of solute clearance but is limited by haemoconcentration. Pre-dilution HDF prolongs filter life but requires significant convection volumes to achieve adequate solute clearance. Mid-dilution HDF utilises a specific dialyser, which is associated with additional cost and escalating transmembrane pressure. Mixed-dilution HDF appears to offer an attractive balance between solute clearance efficiency and haemoconcentration, however these findings need to be confirmed in large studies. The majority of trials comparing fluid reinfusion strategies have enrolled small numbers of patients over brief study periods. It is unclear whether high-quality evidence examining fluid convection and reinfusion will become available and practice may need to rely on observational data.
Part of the book: Advances in Hemodiafiltration
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in the dialysis population, affecting up to 60% of cohorts. Cardiovascular mortality rates are reported to be ~14 per 100 patient-years, which are 10- to 20-fold greater than those of age- and gender-matched controls. CVD is the primary cause of death in up to 40% of dialysis patients in Australia, New Zealand and the United States. Dialysis patients endure a greater burden of both traditional risk factors for CVD and risk factors related to loss of kidney function that may account for the higher CVD morbidity and mortality. Many cardiology guidelines include chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) as coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalents. It is therefore important for clinicians to both recognise and optimise the cardiovascular health of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. This chapter will focus on risk factor modification, screening and prevention of CVD in dialysis patients.
Part of the book: Aspects in Dialysis
Transplantation carries significant mortality benefit compared to dialysis in end-stage kidney disease. Increased perioperative risk, however, results in a higher mortality in the first 3 months post-transplantation compared to remaining on haemodialysis. Consequently, optimal perioperative management is essential. Patients presenting for kidney transplantation require rapid assessment and preparation for theatre to minimise ischaemic times and improve mortality and graft outcomes. This task is often complicated by the presence of multiple medical comorbidities. Furthermore, early complications of hypotension, delayed graft function, renovascular and ureteric surgical complications and rejection render the perioperative phase of transplant challenging for the recipient and for the transplant team. In this chapter, we outline current practices in the assessment and management of kidney transplant recipients during the perioperative period, particularly focusing on their clinical application and the evidence underpinning them.
Part of the book: Perioperative Care for Organ Transplant Recipient