Part of the book: Mechanism of Sedimentary Basin Formation
Since a comprehensive review of forearc basins was published by Dickinson more than 20 years ago, a significant amount of new data about them have been published. These recent studies revealed details of depositional and deformation styles in the forearc basins, suggesting the formation processes were not unique. In this chapter, we reviewed modern forearc basins to understand how is the basin stratigraphy related with growth of accretionary wedges. The results indicate forearc basin can be classified into two (single‐ and two‐wedge models) plus one (strike‐slip model): (1) the single‐wedge model which is characterized by landward tilting of the basin strata ascribed to asymmetrical doubly vergent (single‐vergent) uplift of the outer arc high with forethrusts (seaward‐vergent thrusts in the pro‐wedge); (2) the two‐wedge model which is marked by contractional deformation caused by symmetrical doubly vergent uplift of the wedge with forethrusts in the prowedge and back‐thrusts (landward‐vergent thrusts) in the retro‐wedge; and (3) the strike‐slip model which is an additional one being represented by transpressional and/or transtensional deformations due to oblique subduction. We speculate that these models spatially and temporally depend on material fluxes at the plate interfaces that affect geometry and mechanical strength of backstops.
Part of the book: Evolutionary Models of Convergent Margins