Part of the book: Hydrogenation
Partial hydrogenation of alkynes has industrial and academic relevance on a large scale; industries such as petrochemical, pharmacological and agrochemical use these compounds as raw material. Finding an economic, active and selective catalyst for the production of alkenes through partial hydrogenation of alkynes is thus an important challenge. Mono- and bimetallic catalysts (palladium, ruthenium and nickel) were synthetized by the incipient wetness technique using gamma alumina and an activated carbon as supports. The catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma, hydrogen chemisorption, temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). The objective of this work is to study 1-heptyne-selective hydrogenation using supported catalysts influenced by different factors: (a) pretreatment reduction temperature, (b) reaction temperature, (c) type of support, (d) metal loading, (e) precursor salt and (f) addition of a second metal to monometallic palladium catalyst. The Lindlar commercial catalyst, commonly used in these types of reactions, was used for comparative purposes. XPS technique allowed verifying that the presence of electron-deficient species on the catalyst surface with high metal loading affects the conversion and selectivity to the desired product. Nevertheless, the influence of geometrical effects and/or mixed active sites in the catalysts, as well as metal-metal and metal-support interactions, cannot be neglected.
Part of the book: New Advances in Hydrogenation Processes