Part of the book: Hydrogenation
In a recent decade, various organocatalysts have been developed to be applicable to a wide range of asymmetric reactions. This review briefly summarizes the hydrogen-bonding activation by chiral noncovalent organocatalysts. First, the differences between hydrogen-bonding catalysts and Brønsted acid catalysts are addressed. Next, the effect of hydrogen-bonding interactions on the transition states is discussed. Finally, the hydrogen-bonding activations by the typical noncovalent organocatalysts, such as thiourea, diol, phosphoric acid, Brønsted acid-assisted chiral Brønsted acid, and N-triflyl phoshoramide, are shown.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Organocatalysis
Although dyes have received much attention as the visible light-activated photocatalysts, the use of metal-free organic dyes in synthetic organic chemistry is still limited. This chapter summarizes the recent progress in the visible light photocatalysis promoted by metal-free organic dyes. Eosin Y is the typical organic dyes to induce the photoredox catalysis. Recently, other organic dyes such as Rose Bengal, fluorescein, and methylene blue have been studied as photocatalysts to promote the single-electron transfer processes.
Part of the book: Visible-Light Photocatalysis of Carbon-Based Materials
The N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) open the new field of organocatalysis, leading to the dramatic progress on the cooperative NHC catalysis with transition-metal catalysts or photocatalysts.
Part of the book: Carbene