Part of the book: Dehydrogenases
The therapy, observation, inclusiveness, and preclusion of related diseases all influence the diagnosis of influenza. Particularly, the pandemic duration and diagnosis time for influenza are extremely important. After the appearance of symptoms, antiviral medication must be initiated within 48 h. Cell culture, real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry, direct and indirect immunofluorescence methods, and the quick diagnosis test are all valuable approaches for the diagnosis of influenza. Different instruments, different time durations for the results, and different specialists characterize all these approaches. Antigen selection is of critical importance with regard to the specificity and sensitivity of these methods, especially the serological and rapid diagnosis tests. M2e, the highly conserved external domain of the influenza A M2 protein, is a potential differential diagnostic marker for influenza virus infection. This chapter reviews the studies that use M2e as a diagnosis agent, and it illuminates the role and importance of M2e in the diagnosis of influenza.
Part of the book: Steps Forwards in Diagnosing and Controlling Influenza
Polymer scaffolds have many various applications in the field of tissue engineering, drug delivery, and implantation. They are applied as dispensing devices for bioactive molecules and as three-dimensional (3D) structures that provide stimulants that organize cells and direct desired original tissue formation. Hydrogels are preferred scaffolding material because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, often processed under mild conditions, and can be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. Hydrogel materials formed a group of polymeric materials. The hydrophilic structure allows them to hold large amounts of water in their three-dimensional backbone. As a result, hydrogels are used as scaffolding material for drug and growth factor transmission, tissue engineering modifications, and many other applications. In this chapter, we describe the physical and chemical structure of hydrogels, side groups, cross-linkings, swelling properties, types of polymers and fabrication methods, and application fields.
Part of the book: Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine
Nanotoxicology, which is related with toxic potentials of nanoparticles (NPs) and their adverse effects on living organisms and environment, is a sub-branch of toxicology discipline. Nano-toxicity of NPs depends on their doses, unique chemical, and physical properties. Nowadays, silver (Ag) NPs are used in many consumer and scientific applications such as antimicrobial and pharmaceutical applications, water purification systems, textile industry, and food packaging processes. However, the information that about their nano-toxic potentials is still not complete, and it is considered that several parameters of Ag NPs such as size, shape, surface, and stability affect the toxic potential in different ways. Nano-toxic potentials of Ag NPs were mentioned as in vivo, in vitro, and in silico the studies. In this chapter, it was evaluated the common unique properties of NPs are related with nanotoxicology such as size, surface area and modifications, shape, agglomeration status, and dose.
Part of the book: Silver Nanoparticles