Multiple cell cycle regulatory proteins play an important role in oncogenesis. Cancer cells may arise from dysregulation of various genes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. In addition, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are regarded as key regulators for cancer cell proliferation. Accordingly, permission of impaired cells by cell cycle checkpoints suppresses carcinogenesis. P53, a multifunctional protein, controls G1-S transition, which is the strongest tumor suppressor involved in the regulation of cell cycle. The p53 is stimulated by cellular stress like oxidative stress. Upon activation, p53 leads to cell cycle arrest and promotes DNA repair; otherwise, it induces apoptosis. One of the target effectors of p53 is the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). The tumor suppressor PTEN is a dual-specificity phosphatase which has protein phosphatase activity and lipid phosphatase activity that antagonizes PI3K/AKT activity. The PI3K/AKT cell survival pathway is shown as regulator of cell proliferation. The p53 cooperates with PTEN and might be an essential barrier in development of cancers. BRCA1 plays an important role in DNA repair processes related to maintenance of genomic integrity and control of cell growth. The inactivation of these tumor suppressor proteins confers a growth advantage of cancer. This chapter summarizes the function of several tumor suppressors in the cell cycle regulation.
Part of the book: New Aspects in Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Human Carcinogenesis