Holder of the D.Sc., M.Sc., B.Sc, and Ph.D. degrees from Queen Mary University, served in the Royal Engineers in Egypt finding water supplies and solving engineering problems for the Headquarters, British Troops, Egypt and for the Arab Legion. Soil surveyor For Hunting Technical Services in Iraq (3 years) and Government Soil Surveyor in Guyana (2 years). Taught at Universities of Chicago, Wilfred Laurier, Kansas, and Calgary. Studied the relationship between Climate and Permafrost for the National Research Council of Canada, determining the permafrost distribution along the Eastern Cordillera from New Mexico to Inuvik in the NWT. Worked with the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Tibet and Tien Shan, studied permafrost landforms and processes in New Zealand, Russia, Mongolia, Kazhakstan, the Alps, Scandinavia, Iceland, Bolivia, the Low Countries, Poland, and North America. Wrote two books on landforms, processes, and use of Permafrost lands. Awarded the Nikolai Mihailovich Prjevalsky medal by the Russian Geographical Society.