Wildlife tuberculosis (TB) is becoming one of the emerging challenges for conservation globally. South Asian region is home to many endangered species like Asian elephants, rhinoceros, and Bengal tigers. Although it carries more than one‐third of global burden of human TB, TB in livestock and wildlife has not been adequately studied. This chapter reviews the present knowledge and information about animal‐adapted members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and wildlife TB in South Asia. Recent studies of TB from different wild animals in Nepal and Bangladesh have found that M.orygis is an emerging threat of wildlife TB in the region. These studies have demonstrated wide diversity of M. orygis strains circulating in the region indicating its endemic distribution. M. orygis–associated TB was discovered from a free‐ranging rhinoceros in Nepal and the finding could signify threat of TB in other wild animals, including a possibility of unknown maintenance host. Recent studies also revealed an emerging challenge caused by TB to elephants in different South Asian countries like Nepal, India, and Sri Lanka. Wildlife TB is becoming a conservation challenge in South Asia, but given the paucity of research in this area, it is overlooked and underexplored.
Part of the book: Global Exposition of Wildlife Management
Non‐typhoidal Salmonella is the primary foodborne zoonotic agent of salmonellosis in many countries. Non‐typhoidal Salmonella infections are transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods from animal origin, whereas S. Typhi and Paratyphi infections are spread directly or indirectly by contact with an infected person. Quinolones exhibit potent antibacterial activity against Salmonella and are usually the first choice of treatment for life‐threatening salmonellosis due to multidrug‐resistant strains. However, by the early 1990s, quinolones have been approved for use in food‐producing animals. The increased use of this group of antimicrobials in animal has led to the concomitant emergence of quinolone‐resistant non‐typhoidal Salmonella strains. However, in some countries, there are no legal provisions, which apply to veterinary drugs. This situation provides favorable conditions for spread and persistence of quinolone‐resistant bacteria in food‐producing animals. The objective of this chapter is to review the current regulatory controls for the use of quinolones in food‐producing animals, its effect on development of quinolone resistance, and the potential impact on human and animal health. Moreover, this chapter reviews the current knowledge of quinolone resistance mechanisms and the future directions of research with particular attention to the strategies to control the emergence of quinolone‐resistant Salmonella.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis
Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in Asia and other countries due to its high meat and milk quality, aside from draft power source. It adapts well to tropical climate and has significant contribution to the livestock industry, provided with improved breeding and good animal husbandry practices. Infectious diseases are hindrance to good reproductive performance of livestock, resulting in huge economic loss. In addition, most of these diseases are zoonotic, posing serious threats on human health. However, its degree of severity varies in each region and is often overlooked. This chapter reviews the common and current updates on emerging bacterial, viral, protozoal, fungal and endoparasitic pathogens that infect water buffaloes worldwide. All of the diseases directly affect the animals’ health condition except for schistosomiasis where water buffalo played an important role as shedder of infection to humans. Leptospirosis, brucellosis, Bovine Tb, BVDV and fasciolosis have projected economic impact to water buffalo industry as well as its effect as zoonoses. However, the data seem underquantified since most are neglected diseases and are highly prevalent in developing countries. Further studies are needed particularly in countries where water buffalo is the major livestock than cattle to fully utilize the potential of the animal.
Part of the book: Emerging Infectious Diseases in Water Buffalo