Tinnitus is a disturbing noise that is heard without any hearing stimulus, affects the quality of life of the individual, and leads to psychosocial problems. Its prevalence characteristically increases with aging. It is seen in 33% of the general population. Pathophysiology of tinnitus known to accompany nearly all disorders in auditory system has not been fully understood; therefore, there are some difficulties in evaluation and treatment thereof. Despite the restrictive factors of tinnitus treatment, progress in auditory neuroscience provides a positive view of tinnitus treatment. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method based on the stimulation of neuronal tissue without depending on the transfer of electrical current by means of electrodes or the skin. TMS is used in the treatment of various diseases with developing neuroscience. In the recent years, the number of studies on TMS application with repetitive low frequency for the treatment of tinnitus has increased, and most of these studies have given successful results. Repetitive use of TMS in tinnitus is very novel; however, it is commonly used in psychiatric disorders, especially in the treatment of drug-resistant depression. The chapter shows that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) is useful in the treatment of chronic tinnitus.
Part of the book: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neuropsychiatry
When Meniere’s disease’s vertigo attacks are too frequent and medical treatment options fail, surgical treatment options should be considered. Meniere’s disease is progressive, and there is not a known cure, and all treatment options are symptomatic. Also the possibility of bilateral involvement is another well-known characteristic of this condition as well as its effect on hearing. Some of the patients have progressive hearing loss with vertigo attacks. In order to decide a surgical procedure for these patients, clinicians must be aware of the natural course of Meniere’s disease. In order to their effects on vestibular system, there are two types of surgical procedures. Nondestructive surgeries aim to alter the course of disease, and destructive surgeries aim to control symptoms while eliminating all vestibular functions of the effected ear.
Part of the book: Meniere's Disease