The design and assembly of soft supramolecular structures based on small building blocks are governed by non-covalent interactions, selective host-guest interactions, or a combination of different interaction types. There is a surprising number of studies supporting the use of computational models for mimicking supramolecular nanosystems and studying the underlying patterns of molecular recognition and binding, in multi-dimensional approaches. Based on physical properties and mathematical concepts, these models are able to provide rationales for the conformation, solvation and thermodynamic characterization of this type of systems. Molecular dynamics (MD), including free-energy calculations, yield a direct coupling between experimental and computational investigation. This chapter provides an overview of the available MD-based methods, including path-based and alchemical free-energy calculations. The theoretical background is briefly reviewed and practical instructions are introduced on the selection of methods and post-treatment procedures. Relevant examples in which non-covalent interactions dominate are presented.
Part of the book: Molecular Dynamics
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. Despite the efforts developed in the respective treatment, consisting of maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis remains very poor. This may be partly related to the resistance of GBM cells and their infiltrative and invasive nature into the surrounding brain tissue. Therefore, newer and challenging alternative approaches for the treatment have emerged, including immunotherapy. This anticancer therapy, based on the stimulation of the host’s immune system, has been currently investigated and several advances in the clinical trial stage have already been reached. Immunotherapeutic strategies comprise a set of modalities, including vaccines (cell-free and cell-based), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and oncolytic viruses (OVs). In this chapter, we will review the principal concepts and the recent progress in immunotherapy for GBM.
Part of the book: Biopharmaceuticals