Biological attributes of three predators of mustard aphids under laboratory conditions.
Insect pests act as main barrier in enhancing yield potential of Brassica crops. Lipaphis erysimi is considered as one of the most destructive insect species in mustard production due to its voracious type feeding and multiplication. Therefore application of insecticide is inevitable for cultivation of cruciferous crops, although systemic insecticides has been found to be suitable for management of aphid, despite of high cost, residual effect and ecological ramification have necessitated the application of bio and botanical insecticides as novel approach and are recorded significant in research. Aphids having exclusively viviparous parthenogenesis type reproduction from January to March month with the completion of eight generations are helpful in quick mass multiplication. Natural enemies Coccinella spp., Syrphid larvae and bio-pesticide found effective in suppress aphid numbers. Manipulation in sowing dates of mustard crop provides good yield and less incidence of aphid which is proved through research. Lack of environmental resistant varieties has dispensed toward non feasibility of conventional breeding approaches for developing aphid-resistant Brassica. Although application of genetic engineering plan has resulted in moderate success in development of aphid resistance, so far commercialization of such genetically modified crops has not conceivable, intimate the necessity of further insights in to host plant and aphid communication to form effective approach against aphid resistance. Therefore in this chapter the components involved in Brassica aphid communication are highlighted and present statuses and problem in aphid management are discussed.
- ecological factors
- entomopathogenic fungus
- resistance varieties
- systemic insecticide
- yield loss
Rape seeds-mustard act as a major valuable oilseed and create key commencement of utilisation of oil and cake for feeding purpose of human as well as animal respectively. It has crucial status in Indian recession. India ranked 2nd in the production of mustard among all oil seed crops followed by China . Mustard shared total 26% of production of oil seed in India. Main component of mustard is oil (32–40%) and protein (15–17%) Oilseeds as dietary food on priority basis and stored as raw material in agro industry are used to prepare various commodity such as cosmetics, detergents, laxatives, soaps, lubricants, apart from it have excellent medical and therapeutic significant. Application of recent package of practices with the cultivation of high yielding varieties enhances production of mustard. Rape seed mustard are highly susceptible to incidence of several pests like mustard aphid (
2. Host plant resistance as effective phenomenon for controlling aphid
Crops infested by aphids are those having good sap content . Consecutive selection of a plant, aphid required to adjust with it to obtain benefit from target crops. Pest consumes liquid content as its feeding material from phloem of plant via inserting stylets . Plants external arrangement as well as manufactured complex substances of plants perform key role for safety of plant against aphid. External structure like, waxy content on leaf, hardness of fingernail skin, availability of spines and trichome affect aphid for selection of target portion of plant . Further, leaves having alternative metabolites, healthful condition of fluid content of plant portion act as target host by plant lice . Phytophagous crucifixion as well as essentiality of plants are altered with changeable climatic condition that at last ramification for their communications. , Increase temperature, carbon dioxide, moisture stress, environmental pollutant generally SO2, NO as well as NO2 enormously alter population of aphid to select its suitable target host . Correspondingly, be concerned with development of aphid and their collaboration with other biotic additionally decided link with aphid and target host plant .
3. Nourishing mechanism of aphid on target host
Aphid changes their size by moulting process in nymphal form body that depend up on the nourishment gain from target host. Inside complexity of all harmful arthropods of mustard, aphid has the ability to bear carotenoid shade from normally in selected hosts.  Plant lice species does not impel toward other plant canopy as their host plant. On their selected target they attacked on generally all tender parts of plant, like vegetative, floweral part, branches and pod. Plant cell sap is suck by modified piercing and sucking type mouthparts of aphids, mouth parts of aphid are modified as needle like structure stylets combination that slices target tissue of plant to insert in phloem site and concurrently stylet penetrate in to the phloem. Aphid form two particular types of spit, protein as well as jellifying thick saliva around the stylet helpful to create an intercellular course in phloem for the purpose of penetrating stylets , next sorts of saliva discharge occurred to takeoff filter through stylet into the vascular structure of target host. Aphid release sugar rich material recognisable as honeydew that enhances the improvement of dirty form in the monetary patches of plants and curtail the nature of item . Yet, honeydew sweet in nature attract ants for spare them from normal foes of aphid. Continuation ways of aphid about 20–40 days; its higher increase rate acts as its life assurance for maintain their population in crop ecosystem by providing protection from natural enemies.
4. Reproduction pattern of aphid
Aphid shows both sexual and asexual type of reproduction capability along with comparatively simple reproductive adjustment. On the basis of availability of host plant aphid expresses either autoecious (No change in host, monoecious) or heteroecious type of life history. Mainly aphid completes monoecious life cycle, by spending entire life on single host plant  but on the other hand, only 10% aphid is noted as heteroecious by completing their single life cycle on different hosts . On the basis of environmental situation, aphid is capable to produce of nymphs or eggs at different time of year, it may be holocyclic means completing life cycle changing between parthenogenesis or sexual reproduction or anholocyclic means incomplete life cycle expressing only parthenogenesis but no sexual reproduction pattern life cycle followed by aphid . In favourable condition aphids promote both type of life cycle. In holocyclic life cycle at low temperature eggs on primary host hatched in spring, developed in to winged mother (fundatrices), which quickly convert parthenogenesis or viviparous type of reproduction promoting wingless female population shortly. With increase of temperature wingless female gave birth of new apterous generation of aphid. In cold condition apterous aphid promoted into alate form, a few of which were males participated in sexual reproduction by mating with female and returned on primary for oviposition . At the beginning of spring season hatching of these eggs occurred for recycling of life (Figure 2). Males are completely absent only asexual reproduction is recorded in anholocyclic life cycle. Viviparous females gives birth only female aphid parthenogenetically throughout the year (Figure 2). Mustard aphids are located mostly in various geographical locations, where overwintering oviposition process almost completely absent, it shows parthenogenetic type reproduction by entire year .
The adult females deposited eggs on tender leaves and shoot and go through an advancement of hatching. Such growth and development of plant lice with no preparation produce their little girl aphid. This structure develops via parthenogenesis type reproduction in hilly area . It has affection for selection of host plant for deposition of egg mass in hilly area. Host attributes like, genetically modification, external appearance, physiological structure, engineering, appropriation, thickness of vegetative portion and physical signs are considered by plant feeder as well as aphids for proper selection of their ovipositional place . In the mid year time frame they pick woody hosts for optional or agricultural crops, including vegetable harvests of families Chenopodiaceae, Compositae. Cucurbitaceae, Cruciferae and Solanaceae . Yet, in the ephemeral crops aphid deposited their eggs mass on floral parts or young branches near to floweral parts . Natural as well as synthetic characters of flowers of target crops alter oviposition of aphid. Female adults find out safety as well as mechanical assist in the deposition of eggs due to them select elongated floweral parts generally. Main parts of leaf having alleco-synthetic admixture as well as lipids can beside create oviposition . Crop volatilise beside supporting in the reproductive improvement help in the and release of sex pheromones by female aphid  In plain region,
5. Effects of temperature and drought condition on growth and multiplication of aphids
Temperature play an important role in managing wing spread, divergence, improvement as well as evolution of life stages in aphid . In summer season aromatic plants provide best quality food comparison with wooded plant. Plant lice can overthrow the command forced at high temperature from dislocate themselves from that territory’s host plant to other target host . Increase the strength of aphid colony in crop ecosystem depends upon the optimum range of temperature. In different experiment, it was clear that occurrence and intensity of aphid were directly related on temperature as well as warm moist cloudy weather on mustard . There are several acceptances that water compression approach in the recurrence of some phytophagous arthropods . Aphid depends on the with balanced water pressure on plants . Thus, aphid tries to move another place from their disturbed place and starts feeding on host crops where development of population easily takes placed with reduction of yield.
5.1 Factors influencing the selection and modification of target crops by aphid
Plant lice are one of the valuable agricultural destructive arthropods in crop production related with 4500 species globally. Its short life cycle completed within month, with high fecundity facilitates them to continue their destruction on crops by mass multiplication and maintaince population in the field. It acts as vector of transmitting viral diseases. Application of chemical to manage target pest population within field crops has harmful issues in as creating environmental pollution and health hazard. Regular use of synthetic molecules creates resistance in target pest as well as changes status of small population of pest in to major problem. Eco-friendly pest management practices can provide useful way for reduction of aphid population from field crop. Proper handling of crop ecosystem segment supplies excellent choice to avoid harmful effect of pesticide application. Reciprocal action of plant lice with their host plant is a basic principles for protect environment from chemical pollutant. Target crop of pests that provide shelter as well as nutritive food, aphids are phytophagous in nature dependent on various agricultural crops to complete life cycle . After finding suitable host plant, aphid accommodate with it to take required nutrient from plant. They ingest liquid content as food material from phloem region of host by inserting their stylet . External arrangement as well as synthetic molecule on crops is the first part of defence of plant to counter the attack of aphid such as waxy coating on upper part of leaf, hard integument, availability of ridges and trichome alter plant lice to search target crops . Nutritional status and water availability within cell sap and secondary metabolites interfere in searching suitable target crops by aphid . Phytophagous pest activity as well as attributes of host is affected by the modification of climatic condition that ultimately disturbs their interactions. , Exalted temperature, CO2, moisture stress as well as ecosystem pollutants like SO2, NO and NO2 show significant impact on aphid multiplication and finding their target host crops . In further, nature of damage as well as birth rate of plant lice and its intercommunication with another living organism are helpful to decide the relation among them . Simple correlation with meteorological parameters revealed that among the abiotic factors (Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall), temperature had the biggest impact in enhancement as well as maintenance of aphid populace. The appearance of
5.2 Comparable study on life table of
L.erysimion alternate host
Canola acts as important cash crop in Iran.
5.3 Function of effector protein in spreading of aphid
It is considered that available protein in aphid saliva acts as effector proteins with specific disparate function that combine to stop immune process of the target crop formation of effective colony, new approach of bioinformatics and proteomics instrument applied for identification scant strength of effectors in aphid [47, 48, 49]. Few of them effectors express excepted work like as cell wall degradation with enzyme (Amylases, pectinases, glucanases) or detoxification (peroxidases, phenol oxidases, oxidoreductase) but generally this effector was recorded as dissimilarity to protein with known work .
5.4 Communication through signal response in host following aphid infestation
Endogenous signalling molecule of host crop performs a significant role in the management of protective response against attack of phytophagous. Communications between the plant hormones like as gibberellic acid (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA),salicylic acid (SA), hydrogen peroxide (H202) and nitric oxide(NO) creates a complex interrelated structure where all component influence each other by both synergistic and inhibitory communication proceeded to a protective mechanism . Aphid like as
6. Biogical aspect as well as sustainable potential of three effective bio control agents against
Management of aphid’s natural enemies such as, Ladybird beetle,
Female adult deposited yellow coloured eggs in group near about 26–45. Hatching duration 3.5 ± 0.5 days to be recorded, growth and size of the larva enhanced with each successive ecdysis. Total grub duration was recorded 26 ± 3 days.. Grey to black in colour with external orange pupa was observed of
|Incubation period||3.5 ± 0.5 days||03 ± 0.5 days||3 ± 1 days|
|Larval period||26 ± 3 days||22 ± 1.5 days||21 ± 1.5 days|
|First instar||3.5 ± 0.5 days||12.9 ± 1.0 days||13 ± 0.5 days|
|Second instar||7.5 ± 1.5 days||4.1 ± 0.5 days||3.90 ± 1.0 days|
|Third instar||6.5 ± 0.5 days||5.0 ± 1.0 days||4.0 ± 0.5 days|
|Fourth instar||8.5 ± 1.0 days||—||—|
|Pupal period||7.5 ± 1.5 days||7 ± 1 days||8 ± 1 days|
|Adult longevity||31.5 ± 1.5 days||14 ± 1.5 days||13 ± 1 days|
|Life cycle||68.5 ± 6.5 days||47 ± 2 days||41 ± 2 days|
|Fecundity||357.45 ± 22.41. No/female||45.0 ± 16.8. No/female||31.2 ± 13.6. No/female|
Near or within colony of aphid single eggs deposition occurred by
Greyish in colour as well as oblong shaped eggs deposited by adult female had incubation duration 3 ± 1 days. Larval period completed within 21 ± 1.5 days having three larval instars. 8 ± 1 days were recorded as pupal period. Longevity of adult female was 13 ± 1 days as well as laid 31.2 ± 13.6 eggs (Table 1).
6.4 Consumption capability of predators on aphid
The study on these predators, feeding capability on plant lice noticed that last grub instar devoured highest aphids than earlier instar grub and enhance each consecutive instars. Such capability of natural enemies’ grub of
|Stages||Daily consumption of aphids per day (Mean ± SE)||Consumption per life stage (Mean ± SE)|
|First instar||20.42 ± 00.42||07.30 ± 0.08||06.51 ± 0.17||081.67 ± 0.33||095.00 ± 1.51||084.67 ± 1.30|
|Second instar||35.00 ± 00.99||23.58 ± 0.22||23.75 ± 0.29||315.00 ± 1.34||094.00 ± 4.30||095.00 ± 4.80|
|Third instar||65.48 ± 01.27||45.53 ± 1.09||39.58 ± 1.46||458.33 ± 1.29||227.67 ± 0.95||158.33 ± 1.79|
|Fourth instar||85.11 ± 01.39||—||—||766.00 ± 1.78||—||—|
|Adult||81.55 ± 15.34||Free living||Free living||2691.00 ± 533||Free living||Free living|
|Total cons umption||4312 ± 537.74||416.67 ± 6.76||338.00 ± 7.89|
7. Occurrence and management of mustard aphid through cultural practices
Thirty-eight insect pest incidences are recorded on mustard crop in India. In the country among them aphid acts as key pest in mustard growing region. Nymphs and adults both stages of aphid damaged crop by sucking liquid food material from the leaves, flowers as well as siliquae making the qualitative and quantitive loss in yield. Aphid reduced 35.4 to 96% yield loss, 30.9% weight loss and 2.75 per cent oil loss in mustard [66, 67, 68, 69].
7.1 Date of sowing
The occurrences of
7.2 Utilisation of aphid resistant variety
Application of resistance cultivar acts as eco-friendly way to control aphid infestation on Brassica crops. For development of resistant variety utilisation of conventional breeding techniques required lot of time and repetition due to deficiency of resistant component in cultivated as well as wild relative of Brassica. In recent screening of two wild type Brassica varieties (
7.3 Balanced application of fertilisers
Combined utilisation of biofertilizers, growth retardant and compost can therefore be employed for regulating crop metabolism and physiological responses resulting in enhanced crop growth and protection against pathogens and pest .
7.4 Role of yellow sticky trap in aphid management
Performance of yellow sticky trap and imidacloprid 17.8% SL was assessed on farmer’s field through front line demonstrations. The per cent increase in the yield under demonstration technology was 18.52% and 26.99% over the farmer’s practices  Monitoring of alate aphid initial average population ranged from 0.93 to 19.42 aphids per trap and attained to peak at interval relay upon the climatic factors from 9th to 12th standard week . The initial average population ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 aphids per trap and came to peak alternately relaying upon the climatic factors during 7th to 10th standard week .
8. Application of entomopathogenic fungus in management of aphid
Lot of commercial fungal biopesticides with several brand names as well as formulations are available as agro-product globally . The perverted entomopathogenic fungi
9. Botanical pesticides
The crude aqueous extracts from
|Local Name||Scientific Name||Parts used||Per cent morality of aphid|
|CD (P = 0.05)||5.8|
In this chapter it can be concluded that aphid acts as dominant among all pest of mustard crop having 10–90% damaging capability with a significant reduction of yield. To avoid indiscriminate application of synthetic pesticides those show harmful effect on beneficial organism and application of eco-friendly management practices should be employed. However we will require extending of dynamics communication between host plant resistance as well as biological control with target pest in relation to changing climatic condition.
We would like to acknowledge the improvement of this manuscript made through comments by reviewer.
Listed authors have made substantial direct and intellectual contribution for this review article as well as approved it to submit for publication.